Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
List of foods named after people
This is a list of food items named after people.
- For other lists of eponyms (names derived from people) see eponym.
- For a list of eponyms sorted by name see List of eponyms.
- Fillet of Beef Prince Albert – Queen Victoria's Consort Prince Albert (1819-1861), also has an English white sauce, the Prince Albert Pea , and Prince Albert apple named for him, and probably Albert Pudding .
- Chicken à la d'Albufera – Louis-Gabriel Suchet (1770-1826), one of Napoleon's generals and marshal of France for a time, was named duc d'Albufera after a lake near Valencia, Spain, to mark his victory there during the Peninsular War. Famed 19th-century French chef Antonin Câreme created several dishes in the duke's honor, including duck, beef, and the sauce that accompanies this chicken.
- Fettuccine Alfredo – Alfredo di Lelio , an early 20th-century Italian chef who invented the dish for his wife in 1914-20 at his Roman restaurant. The dish became famous in part because Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks touted it after their 1927 visit to Rome. The authentic Alfredo recipe contains only several butters, no cream sauce.
- Alexandertorte – possibly Alexander I, the gourmet Russian tzar who employed Antonin Carême. Finland claims the creation, allegedly by Swiss pastry chefs in Helsinki in 1818, in anticipation of the tzar's visit there.
- Gâteau Alexandra – like her husband Edward VII, Alexandra (1844-1925) was honored by an assortment of foods named after her when she was Princess of Wales and Queen. Besides this chocolate cake, there is consommé Alexandra, soup, sole, chicken quail, and various meat dishes.
- Consommé Princess Alice – this consommé with artichoke hearts and lettuce is named for Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone (1883-1981), one of Queen Victoria's granddaughters.
- Amundsen's Dessert – Roald Amundsen (1872-1928), the great Norwegian polar explorer, was served this dish by Norwegian-American friends in Wisconsin not long before he died in an Arctic plane crash.
- Potatoes Anna – the casserole of sliced potatoes cooked in butter was created and named by French chef Adolf Dugléré for the well-known 19th-century courtesan/actress Anna Deslions , who frequented Dugléré's Café Anglais . "Potatoes Annette" is a version of Potatoes Anna, with the potatoes julienned instead of in rounds.
- Oreiller de la Belle Aurore – Claudine-Aurore Récamier , the mother of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, has a lobster dish named after her, but it is this elaborate game pie which was one of her son's favorite dishes. The large square pie contains a variety of game birds and their livers, veal, pork, truffles, aspic, and much else, in puff pastry. But perhaps you'd like to make it yourself. Go here: Belle Aurore.
- Baldwin apple – Colonel Loammi Baldwin (1745-1807), a commander of militia at the Battle of Lexington, found this apple ca. 1784 or 1793 while working as a surveyor and engineer on the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts.
- Chicken Cardinal la Balue – Cardinal Jean la Balue (1421-1491), a somewhat notorious minister to Louis XI, is remembered in this dish of chicken, crayfish, and mashed potatoes.
- Bartlett pear – accidentally (?) renamed English Williams pear by Massachusetts nurseryman Enoch Bartlett , early 19th century. Williams was a 17th-century English horticulturist.
- Battenburg Cake – probably named after one of the late-19th century princely Battenberg family living in England, who gave up their German titles during World War I and changed their name to Mountbatten.
- Béchamel sauce, named to flatter the maître d'Hotel to Louis XIV, Louis de Béchameil , Marquis de Nointel (1630–1703), also a financier and ambassador.
- Béarnaise sauce – although often thought to indicate the region of Béarn, the sauce name may well originate in the nickname of French king Henri IV (1553-1610), "le Grand Béarnais."
- Eggs Benedict – at least two main accounts. Lemuel Benedict , a New York stockbroker, claimed to have gone to the Waldorf Hotel for breakfast one day in 1894 while suffering a hangover. He asked for a restorative in the form of toast, bacon, poached eggs, and Hollandaise sauce on the side. The famous maître d' Oscar of the Waldorf took an interest in Benedict's order, and adapted it for the Waldorf menu, substituting English muffins and ham, adding truffles, and naming it after Benedict. The other version: in 1893, Charles Ranhofer , head chef of Delmonico's , created the dish for Mr. and/or Mrs. LeGrand Benedict , New York stockbroker and socialite. Ranhofer is said to have included "eggs à la Benedick" (sic) in his 1894 cookbook.
- Eggs Berlioz – Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), the notable French composer, has his name on a dish of soft-boiled eggs, elevated by the addition of croustades, duchesse potatoes, and truffles and mushrooms in a Madeira sauce.
- Sarah Bernhardt Cakes – famous French actress Sarah Bernhardt (1844-1923). The pastry may be Danish in origin. There is a Sole Sarah Bernhardt, and a soufflé. "Sarah Bernhardt" may also indicate a dish garnished with a purée of foie gras.
- Bibb lettuce – John B. Bibb , mid-19th century amateur horticulturist of Frankfort, Kentucky.
- Oysters Bienville – this New Orleans dish of baked oysters in a shrimp sauce was named for Jean-Baptiste le Moyne , Sieur de Bienville (1680-1767), French governor of Louisiana and founder of New Orleans (1718).
- Bing cherry – Oregon horticulturist Seth Luelling (or Lewelling) developed the cherry ca. 1875, with the help of his Manchurian foreman Bing, after whom he named it.
- Bismarck herring , Bismarcks , Schlosskäse Bismarck – Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898), chief figure in the unification of Germany in 1870 and first Chancellor of the German Empire, has many foods named after him, including these - pickled herring, pastry, and cheese.
- Eggs in a Mold Bizet – Georges Bizet (1838-1875), the French composer of Carmen and other operas, has a consommé named for him as well as these eggs cooked in molds lined with minced pickled tongue, served on artichoke hearts.
- Sole Bolivar – famous South American revolutionary Simon Bolivar (1783-1830).
- Boysenberry - Rudolf Boysen, botanist and Anaheim park superintendent, developed the loganberry/raspberry/blackberry cross ca. the 1920's. The berry was subsequently grown, named and made famous in the 1930's by Walter Knott of Knott's Berry Farm in California.
- Brillat-Savarin cheese – Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) has many dishes named for him besides this cheese, including partridge, eggs, garnishes, savory pastries, and the Savarin cake. Brillat-Savarin was the influential French author of The Physiology of Taste, in which he advocated viewing cuisine as a science.
- Burbank plum – Luther Burbank (1849-1926), renowned American horticulturist, bred many new varieties of plants, including this and the Russet Burbank potato.
- Angelina Burdett plum – this plum, bred by a Mr. Dowling of Southampton, England ca. 1850, was named after Baroness Angelina Burdett-Coutts (1814-1906), a notable philanthropist. The Baroness inherited great wealth from her grandfather, banker Thomas Coutts, and devoted much of it to helping the needy at home and abroad.
- Caesar's mushroom – probably named for Julius Caesar, this mushroom of southern France is also called the King of Mushrooms . There is also a Caesar potato .
- Caesar salad – Caesar Cardini (1896-1956), an Italian who came to San Diego, California after World War I, is generally thought to have created the salad (sans anchovies, except those in the Worcestershire sauce) at his restaurant in 1924. The restaurant was located in Tijuana, most likely to avoid Prohibition in the U.S. As with many popular dishes, there are more claimants to the salad's invention, including Cardini's business partner, his brother, and one of his young sous-chefs who said it was his mother's recipe. Julius Caesar is not involved, except perhaps as the source of Mr. Cardini's first name.
- Chateaubriand – a cut and a recipe for steak named for Vicomte François René de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), French writer and diplomat. His chef Montinireil is thought to have created the dish ca. 1822 while Chateaubriand was ambassador to England. There is also a kidney dish named for him.
- Chiboust cream – a cream filling invented by the French pastry chef Chiboust in Paris ca. 1846, and intended to fill his Gâteau Saint-Honoré . The filling is also called Saint-Honoré cream .
- Christian IX cheese – honoring King Christian IX of Denmark (1818-1906), father of British Queen Alexandra, this is a caraway-seeded semi-firm Danish cheese.
- Clementines – named for Père Pierre Clément, a French monk living in North Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. Allegedly, he either found a natural mutation of the mandarin orange which he grew, or he created a hybrid of the mandarin and the Seville oranges. The fruit, however, may have originated long before in Asia.
- Cleopatra Mandarin orange – presumably, Cleopatra VII (69-30 B.C.), of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and the last queen of Egypt, is the name source for this orange and the Cleopatra apple .
- Cobb Salad – Robert H. Cobb , owner of the Hollywood Brown Derby restaurant, who is said to have invented the salad as a late-night snack for himself in 1936-37.
- Cox's Orange Pippin – apple named after its developer Richard Cox (1777-1845), a retired brewer, in Buckinghamshire, England.
- Lady Curzon Soup – Lady Curzon , née Mary Victoria Leiter (1870-1906), the wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord George Nathaniel Curzon, has this turtle soup with sherry attributed to her. Allegedly, she directed the inclusion of sherry when a teetotalling guest prevented the usual serving of alcohol at a dinner, ca. 1905. Lady Curzon was the daughter of Chicago businessman Levi Z. Leiter , who co-founded the original department store now called Marshall Field.
- Dartois – François-Victor-Armand Dartois (1780-1867), once very well-known author of French vaudeville plays, is commemorated by this pastry, made in several versions both sweet and savory.
- Shrimp de Jonghe – hors d'oeuvre created by the de Jonghes , a Belgian couple who had an early-20th century restaurant in Chicago.
- Doboschtorte or Dobostorta – Josef Dobos , well-known Hungarian pastry chef, (b. 1847), created the multi-layered chocolate torte in Budapest or Vienna.
- Du Barry Cream Soup – Madame du Barry (1743-1793), favorite of King Louis XV, had several dishes named for her, often involving cauliflower, as in this soup. The cauliflower is said to have been a reference to her elaborate powdered wigs.
- Sole Dubois – named for the 19th-century French chef Urbain Dubois . (see Veal Prince Orloff )
- Sole Dugléré – Adolf Dugléré (1805-1884), starting as a student of Antonin Câreme , became head chef at the famed Café Anglais in Paris in 1866, where he created and named many well-known dishes. Several dishes of fish bear his own name.
- Salad à la Dumas – Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870), noted French author.
- Duxelles – a mushroom-based sauce or garnish attributed to the great 17th-century French chef François-Pierre de la Varenne (1615-1678) was probably named for his employer, the Marquis d'Uxelles . A variety of dishes use this name.
- Poularde Eduoard VII – like his mother Queen Victoria, Edward VII (1841-1910), noted as a gourmand, had many compliments paid him in the form of foods, both when he was Prince of Wales and later as King. Besides this chicken stuffed with foie gras, there are dishes of turbot, brill, sole, eggs, cake, the King Edward VII potato , the Edward VII apple , et al.
- Mamie Eisenhower fudge – the wife of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mamie Doud Eisenhower (1896-1979) had this candy named after her when she revealed it was a White House favorite. Mamie Eisenhower was First Lady from 1952 to 1960.
- Endicott pear – John Endicott (c. 1588-1665), early settler and governor of Massachusetts, imported pear trees from England (variety name unknown) ca. 1630. The fruit was given his name.
- Steak Esterházy - probably a 19th-century Prince Esterházy of Hungary, of a family close to Austrian royalty.
- Soup Fontanges – the soup of sorrel and peas in consommé with cream and egg yolks is named after Mlle. de Fontanges , Marie Angelique de Scorailles (1659-1681), Louis XIV's mistress between Mme. de Montespan and Mme. de Maintenon .
- Bananas Foster, named after Richard Foster, regular customer and friend of New Orleans restaurant Brennan's owner Owen Brennan , 1951.
- Frangipane – almond pastry filling and tart named for Marquis Muzio Frangipani , a 16th-century Italian (also known as Cesar Frangipani ) living in Paris. He invented a well-known bitter-almond scented glove perfume, used by Louis XIII.
- Green Gage plum or Greengage – Sir William Gage (ca.1656-1727), a botanist and 2nd Baronet of Hengrave, is believed to have brought the plum to England from France in 1724. Knowingly or unknowingly, he renamed the plum that in France was called Reine-Claude , after King Francis I's wife Claude (1498-1524), daughter of Louis XII.
- Cherry Garcia ice cream – Ben & Jerry's homage to Grateful Dead leader Jerry Garcia (1942-1995).
- Garibaldi biscuits – English biscuits named for Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), Italian patriot and leader of the drive to unite Italy, after his wildly popular visit to England in 1864. There is also a French demi-glâce sauce with mustard and anchovies, and a consommé named after him.
- German Chocolate Cake , originally known as German's Chocolate Cake – the 1950's American cake took its name from Baker's German's Sweet Chocolate , which in turn took its name from Sam German who developed the sweet baking chocolate (between milk and semi-sweet) in 1852.
- Earl Grey tea – Charles Grey, Baron, Viscount Howick, and British Prime Minister 1830-1834.
- Graham crackers, Graham flour – Sylvester Graham, 19th-century American Presbyterian minister and proponent of a puritan lifestyle based on teetotalling, vegetarianism, and whole wheat.
- Bombe Grimaldi – kümmel-flavored frozen dessert probably named for a late-19th century member or relative of Monaco's royal Grimaldi family. There is also an apple flan Grimaldi.
- Docteur Jules Guyot pear – 19th-century French agronomist Dr. Jules Guyot , ca. 1870. Guyot did work for Napoléon III in several agricultural fields.
- Hamantaschen – the Yiddish version (Haman's Pockets) of the Hebrew Oznei Haman (Haman's Ears}; a small pastry named for the cruel Persian official outwitted by Queen Esther and hanged, Haman, in the Book of Esther. Hamantaschen are traditionally eaten at Purim. They are also referred to as Haman's hats.
- Hass avocado – in the 1920's, California postal worker Rudolph Hass set out to grow a number of Lyon avocado trees in his backyard. One of the seedlings he bought was a chance variant which produced fruit, his children apparently noticed as unique. Hass patented the variety in 1935, and it now makes up about 75% of U.S. avocado production.
- Heath bar – the American "English toffee" bar is named for brothers Bayard and Everett Heath , Illinois confectioners who developed it in the 1920's and eventually turned the local favorite into a nationally popular candy bar.
- Oh Henry! – the candy bar introduced by the Williamson Candy Company in Chicago, 1920, was named for a young man who frequented the company store and was often commandeered to do odd jobs with that call.
- Schnitzel à la Holstein – Baron Friedrich von Holstein (1837-1909), primary German diplomat after Otto von Bismarck, serving Kaiser Wilhelm II. The gourmet Holstein liked to have a variety of foods on one plate, and the original dish consisted of a veal cutlet topped by a fried egg, anchovies, capers, and parsley, and surrounded by small piles of caviar, crawfish tails, smoked salmon, mushrooms, and truffles. Contemporary versions tend to be pared down to the cutlet, egg, anchovies and capers.
- Gâteau Saint-Honoré – pastry named for the French patron saint of bakers, confectioners, and pastry chefs, Saint Honoré or Honorius (d. 653), Bishop of Amiens. The pastry chef Chiboust is thought to have invented it in his Paris shop in 1846.
- Hubbard squash – Elizabeth Hubbard, who talked up the qualities of the heretofore unnamed squash in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 1842-43.
- Omelette St. Hubert – the patron saint of hunters, St. Hubert of Liège (656-727), the son of Bertrand, Duke of Aquitane , has several dishes involving game named after him: this omelette with a game purée, a consommé, timbales of game meat and truffles, et al. The first bishop of Liège is said to have converted after seeing a stag with a cross in its antlers while he was hunting on a Good Friday.
- Coquilles St. Jacques – the French term for scallops, and the Anglo-American term for the popular scallop dish with butter and garlic, owe their name to St. James the Greater (d. 44 a.d.), fisherman and first martyred apostle. His major shrine in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, drew pilgrims in quantity from all over Europe. The scallop's shell became an emblem of the pilgrimage as it was used as a water cup along the way, and sewn to the pilgrims' clothes like a badge. The scallop became an emblem of St. James, himself, although the timing is unclear. In Spanish, the scallop has "pilgrims" as part of its name, rather than Santiago.
- Jansson's Temptation – possibly Erik Janson , 19th-century Swedish/American religious sect leader.
- Jésus sausage – Jesus has small sausages of the French Basque and Savoy regions named after him. One version is called the Baby Jésus de Lyon .
- John Dory – the English name for a saltwater fish known elsewhere in Europe as Saint Peter's (San Pietro, Saint-Pierre, San Pedro) fish is said to be a reference to Saint Peter's role as "janitor" or doorkeeper at the gates of heaven. Legends claim that spots on the fish are either the fisherman apostle's fingerprints, or a reminder of the coin he found in the fish's mouth - a story from the Gospel of Luke.
- St. Julian plum – the fact that National Plum Pudding Day falls on the same day as that of St. Julian the Hospitaler (d. 160), February 12, may indicate the source of the name. Or not.
- Kaiser rolls – originally, rolls made by a Viennese baker ca. 1487 for Emperor Frederick V, whose profile was stamped on top.
- Kaiserschmarren – the Austrian pancakes were created for Franz Josef I (1848-1916).
- Poached eggs à la Kapisztrán – Italian lawyer/judge of German parentage, turned Franciscan monk and itinerant preacher, Janos Kapisztrán (né Capistrano, 1386-1456) became a Hungarian hero at the age of 70 when he helped defeat the Turkish invasion at Belgrade on the direction of Pope Calixtus III. Canonized in 1690, he is also known as St. John Capistran .
- Lady Kennys , also Ledikenis – this Bengali sweet of fried chhana balls (a milk-based dough) stuffed with raisins is named after Lady Charlotte Canning ((1817-1861), Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria, and the wife of the Governor-General of India (1856-1862), Lord Charles John Canning . The Cannings were in India during the Indian Mutiny, and Lady Canning's popularity there is remembered in this sweet which was one of her admitted favorites.
- Chicken à la King – this dish may have been first named "Chicken à la Keene" after J. R. Keene , an American staying at London's Claridge Hotel in 1881 just after his horse had won a major race in Paris. Other stories make claims for an American origin - Delmonico's chef Charles Ranhofer creating the dish for Foxhall Keene , J. R. 's son, in the early 1890's, or chef George Greenwald making it for Mr. and Mrs. E. Clark King (II or II) at the Brighton Beach Hotel in New York, ca. 1898. No royalty is involved in any of the stories.
- Kossuth Cakes – pastry originating in late 19th-century Baltimore, Maryland, named for Hungarian patriot Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894), leader of the 1848 Hungarian Revolution, who visited the U.S. in 1851-52.
- Crawfish Lafayette en Crêpe – the Marquis de Lafayette, Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier (1757-1834), famed French supporter of the American Revolution, is most likely the name source of this New Orleans dish.
- Dartois Laguipière – Laguipière (ca. 1750- d. 1812) an influential French chef and mentor of Antonin Câreme, worked for the noted Condé family, Napoleon, and finally Marshall Murat, whom he accompanied on Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He died on the retreat from Moscow. This double-eponym savory pastry, filled with sweetbreads and truffles (see Dartois above), is one of many dishes with his name, either his own recipes or those of other chefs commemorating him, including various sauces and fish.
- Lord Lambourne apple – the apple developed in England ca. 1907 was introduced in 1923, and named after the then-president of the Royal Horticultural Society.
- Lamingtons – these small cakes, considered one of Australia's national foods, are usually considered to be named after Lord Lamington , Charles Wallace Alexander Napier Cochrane-Baillie (c.1860-1940), who was governor of Queensland 1896-1901. But there are other interesting claims which can't be covered adequately here. Go to lamingtons.
- General Leclerc pear – the French pear developed in the 1950's and introduced in 1974 is named for Jacques-Philippe Leclerc de Hautecloque (1902-1947), World War II French war hero. General Leclerc, as he was better known, dropped his last name during the Occupation to protect his family.
- Robert E. Lee Cake – southern U.S. cake named for Civil War General Robert E. Lee (1807-1870).
- Jenny Lind melon , Jenny Lind Soup , Oysters and Ham Jenny Lind – Jenny Lind (1820-1887), the "Swedish Nightingale", was already a singing star in Europe when P. T. Barnum convinced her to tour the U.S. Her 1850 visit caused a sensation, and a number of foods were named in her honor.
- Crab Louis - (pronounced Loo-ey)while Louis XIV is often cited as the inspiration because of his notorious fondness for food, the Davenport Hotel in Spokane, Washington claims Louis Davenport is the name source and inventor. Davenport was a Spokane restaurateur from 1889 on, and opened the hotel in 1914. There are several other alleged creators, including Victor Hirtzler (see Celery Victor ).
- Macaroni Lucullus – Lucullus (ca. 106-56 B.C.), full name Lucius Licinius Lucullus Ponticus, was perhaps the earliest recorded gastronome in the Western world, and he may also be its most famous. After a long spell of wars, the Roman general retired to a life of indulgence and opulence, most evident in his gardens and his cuisine. His name has become associated with numerous dishes of the over-the-top sort, using haute cuisine's favorite luxury staples - truffles, foie gras, asparagus tips, artichoke hearts, sweetbreads, cockscombs, wild game meats, Madeira, etc. Macaroni Lucullus incorporates truffles and foie gras.
- Lussekatter , St. Lucia buns – Swedish saffron buns named for Saint Lucia of Syracuse (283-304), whose name day, December 13, was once considered the longest night of the year. As Lucia means light, the saint was incorporated into the celebration when these buns are traditionally eaten. The Swedish term, Lucia's cats, refers to the bun's curled shape.
- Margarita – there are many claims for the name of this tequila/lime/orange liqueur cocktail. Dallas socialite Margarita Samas said she invented it in 1948 for one of her Acapulco parties. Enrique Bastate Gutierrez claimed he invented it in Tijuana in the 1940's for Rita Hayworth. Hayworth's real name was Margarita Cansino , and another story connects the drink to her during an earlier time when she was dancing in Tijuana nightclubs under that name. Carlos Herrera said he created and named the cocktail in his Tijuana restaurant in 1938-39 for Marjorie King . Ms. King was reportedly allergic to all alcohol except tequila, and had asked for something besides a straight shot. Around this same general time period, Nevada bartender Red Hinton said he'd named the cocktail after his girlfriend Margarita Mendez . Other stories exist.
- Pizza Margherita – Queen Margherita of Savoy (1851-1926) was presented with this pizza in the colors of the Italian flag on a trip to Naples, ca. 1889. Many people claimed to have created it.
- Sole Marguery – Nicholas Marguery (1834-1910), famed French chef, created and named this dish, along with others, for himself and his restaurant Marguery in Paris.
- Chicken Maria Theresia – Maria Theresia (1717-1780), Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and wife of Emperor Franz I. Coffee Maria Theresia includes cream and orange liqueur.
- Mary Janes – peanut butter and molasses candy bars developed by Charles N. Miller in 1914, and named after his favorite aunt.
- Massillon – the small almond pastry is named for noted French bishop and preacher Jean-Baptiste Massillon (1663-1742), a temporary favorite of Louis XIV. The pastry originated in the town of Hyères, where Massillon was born.
- McIntosh apple – John McIntosh (1777-1846), American-Canadian farmer who discovered the variety in Ontario, Canada in 1796 or 1811.
- Melba toast – Dame Nellie Melba (1859-1931), famous Australian soprano, née Mitchell, took her stage name from her hometown of Melbourne. In 1892-93, she was living at the Savoy Hotel in London, which was then managed by César Ritz and Auguste Escoffier. During an illness, the singer favored some extremely dry toast which was subsequently named for her. Around this same time, Escoffier created the dessert Peach Melba in her honor. There is also a Melba garnish.
- Potage anglais de poisson à Lady Morgan – Lady Morgan, née Sydney Owenson (1776-1859), a popular Irish novelist, was visiting Baron James de Rothschild in 1829, when Câreme created this elaborate fish soup in her honor. If you have several days available, you can make it yourself. Go to soupsong.
- Mornay sauce – diplomat and writer Philippe de Mornay (1549-1623), a member of Henri IV's court, is often cited as the name source for this popular cheese version of Béchamel sauce. The alternative story is that 19th-century French chef Joseph Voiron invented it and named it after one of his cooks, Mornay, his oldest son.
- Mozartkugel – Salzburg, the birthplace of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), is also the place where this marzipan/nougat-filled chocolate was created ca. 1890.
- Napoleon – Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) is usually thought to be the inspiration. However, the pastry is known as milles-feuilles in France, and millefoglie in Italy. It is possible that it originated in Naples, and the French term à la Napolitaine was garbled in translation. The Danes claim to have invented it for a visit by Napoleon, but the pastry does not seem to have appeared until later in the century.
- Bigarreau Napoleon cherry – unlike the pastry, the French cherry was most likely named after Napoleon Bonaparte. The sweet, white-fleshed (bigarreau) cherry often used in maraschino cherry production fell into the hands of Oregon's Seth Luelling of Bing cherry fame (the Napoleon is a forebear of the Bing), and he renamed it the Royal Anne. Subsequently the cherry also became known as Queen Anne cherry in North America.
- Lord Nelson apple – Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), British hero of the Battle of Trafalgar.
- Nesselrode Pudding – Russian diplomat Count Karl Robert von Nesselrode (1780-1862) had several dishes named for him, usually containing chestnuts, like this iced dessert. A contemporary product used for Nesselrode Pie, Nesselro , uses cauliflower to replace part of the chestnuts.
- Lobster Newberg – variously spelled Newburg and Newburgh, and now applied to other seafood besides lobster, this dish is usually attributed to a Captain Ben Wenberg , who brought the recipe he had supposedly found in his travels to Delmonico's in the late 19th century. The chef, Charles Ranhofer , reproduced the dish for him and put it on the restaurant menu as Lobster Wenberg. Allegedly, the two men had a falling-out, Ranhofer took the dish off the menu, and returned it, renamed, only at other customers' insistence.
- Bath Oliver biscuits – Dr. William Oliver (1695-1764) of Bath, England concocted these as a digestive aid for his patients. Oliver had opened a bath for the treatment of gout, and was largely responsible for 18th-century Bath becoming a popular health resort.
- Veal Prince Orloff – Count Gregory Orloff , paramour of tzarina Catherine the Great is often cited. Much more likely, Urbain Dubois , noted 19th-century French chef, created the dish for his veal-hating employer Prince Nicolas Orloff , minister to tzar Nicolas I, hence the multiple sauces and seasonings.
- Veal Oscar – Sweden's King Oscar II (1829-1907) was fond of this combination of veal, white asparagus, lobster and béarnaise sauce. Contemporary versions may substitute chicken and crab.
- Potatoes Parmentier – Antoine Auguste Parmentier (1737-1817), chief proponent in reversing the French public view about the once-despised potato. Parmentier discovered the food value of the vegetable while a prisoner of war in Germany, where the potato had already been accepted.
- Pastilles – Giovanni Pastilla , Italian confectioner to Marie de Medici, accompanied her to Paris on her marriage to Henri IV.
- Poularde Adelina Patti – probably not the only dish named for 19th-century singing superstar Adelina Patti. Adela Juana Maria Patti (1843-1919), born in Spain of Italian parents, grew up in New York City, singing on stage at 7 and debuting at the opera at 16. Patti quickly went on to become a sensation in Europe, and was eventually world-famous.
- Pavlova – Anna Pavlova(1881-1931), famous Russian ballerina. Both Australia and New Zealand claim to be the source of the meringue ("light as Pavlova") and fruit dessert.
- Dr Pepper – Dr. Charles Pepper . The soft drink invented by pharmacist Charles Atherton in 1885 at a Waco, Texas drugstore owned by Wade Morrison is said to be named for Morrison's first employer, who owned a pharmacy in Virginia.
- Dom Perignon (wine) – Dom Perignon (1638-1715), (Pierre) a blind French Benedictine monk, expert winemaker and developer of the first true champagne in the late 17th century.
- Sole Marco Polo – the great explorer and traveler Marco Polo (1254-1324) has this dish of sole with lobster and, somewhat oddly, tomato, named after him.
- Praline – Duke of Choiseul-Praslin , by his officer of the table Lassagne , presented at the court of Louis XIII. The caramelized almond confection was transformed at some point in Louisiana to a pecan-based one. This praline has gone on to be known by another eponym in the U.S. - Aunt Bill's Brown Candy . Aunt Bill's identity is apparently unknown.
- Queen Mother's Cake – in the 1950's, Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother (1901-2002) was served this flourless chocolate cake by her friend Jan Smeterlin (1892-1967), well-known Polish pianist. Smeterlin had acquired the recipe in Austria, and the Queen Mother's fondness for the cake produced its name, via either Smeterlin, food writer Clementine Paddleford or dessert maven Maida Heatter .
- Ramos Gin Fizz – Henry C. Ramos , New Orleans bartender, created this famous cocktail ca. 1888, at either Meyer's Restaurant or the Imperial Cabinet Saloon, and named it after himself.
- Tournedos Rachel – from singing in the streets of Paris as a child, Swiss-born Elisa-Rachel Félix (1821-1858) went on to become known as the greatest French tragedienne of her day. Her stage name Rachel is used for a number of dishes - consommé, eggs, sweetbreads, et al.
- Ronald Reagan's Hamburger Soup – Ronald Reagan, while President, had this recipe issued publicly in 1986, after he had gotten flak for saying he liked French soups.
- Salad Réjane – Gabrielle Réjane was the stage name for Gabrielle-Charlotte Reju (1856-1920), a famous French actress at the turn of the century. Escoffier named several dishes for her, including consommé, sole, and œufs à la neige.
- Reuben sandwich – possibly Arnold Reuben , a New York restaurateur (1883-1970), created and named it ca. 1914, or Reuben Kolakofsky (1874-1960) ca. 1925 may have made it for a poker group gathered at his Omaha, Nebraska grocery.
- Oysters Rockefeller – John D. Rockefeller or family, by son of Antoine Alciatore Jules, 1899, at New Orleans restaurant Antoine's . The original recipe remains a family secret, but the mixed greens are not the spinach that now characterizes most versions.
- Strawberries Romanoff – although there are a number of claimants for the creation of this dish, including the Hollywood restaurateur self-styled "Prince Michael Romanoff", credit is most often given to Antonin Câreme , when he was chef to tzar Alexander I ca. 1820. Romanoff was the family name of the Russian rulers.
- Tournedos Rossini – Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), famous Italian composer known almost as well as a gastronome. A friend of Câreme , Prince Metternich, et al., Rossini had many dishes named for him - eggs, chicken, soup, salad, cannelloni, sole, risotto, pheasant, and more. Escoffier was responsible for many of these.
- Soufflé Rothschild – a dessert soufflé created by Antonin Câreme for Baron James de Rothschild (1792-1868) and Baroness Betty de Rothschild (1805-1886) in the 1820's. The Baron was a notable French banker and diplomat.
- Baby Ruth candy bar – most likely, Babe Ruth (1895-1948) was the inspiration for the name. Although the Curtiss Candy Co. has insisted from the beginning that the candy bar was named after a daughter of Grover Cleveland, Ruth Cleveland died in 1904 at the age of 12, while the Baby Ruth was introduced in 1921 right at a time when George Herman Ruth, Jr. had become a baseball superstar. It is interesting to note that very early versions of the wrapper offer a baseball glove for 79 cents. Babe Ruth's announced intent to sue the company is probably what drove and perpetuated the dubious cover story.
- Sachertorte – Franz Sacher, Vienna, 1832, working for Prince Metternich.
- Salisbury Steak – Dr. James H. Salisbury (1823-1905), early U.S. health food advocate, created this dish and advised his patients to eat it three times a day, while limiting their intake of "poisonous" vegetables and starches.
- Chicken sauté George Sand – George Sand, the pseudonym of French author Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, Baronne Dudevant (1804-1876), a major figure in mid-19th century Parisian salons, had several dishes named for her, including fish consommé and sole.
- Sandwich – John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792) did not invent the sandwich. Meat between slices of bread had been eaten long before him. But as the often-repeated story goes, his title name was applied to it ca. 1762, after he frequently called for the easily-handled food while entertaining friends. Their card games then were not interrupted by the need for forks and such.
- Schillerlocken – two quite distinct foods named after the curly hair of the German poet Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805). One is cream-filled puff pastry cornets; the other is long strips of dried, smoked shark meat.
- Wild Duckling à la Walter Scott – the dish named for the Scottish writer Walter Scott (1771-1832) includes Dundee marmelade and whisky.
- Seckel pear – although little is known about the origin of this American pear, it is generally believed that a Pennsylvania farmer named Seckel discovered the fruit in the Delaware River Valley near Philadelphia, in the 18th or early-19th century.
- Granny Smith apple – named for Mrs. Maria Anne Smith of Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, who is said to have found it in her backyard ca. 1868.
- Eggs Stanley – Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), the famed British explorer, has several dishes named for him, usually with onions and a small amount of curry seasoning. A recipe for these poached eggs has a sauce with 1/2 teaspoon of curry powder.
- Stroganoff – named for a Count Stroganov (possibly Count Pavel Alexandrovitch Stroganov or Count Grigory Stroganov)
- Crepes Suzette – said to have been created for then-Prince-of-Wales Edward VII on 31 January, 1896, at the Café de Paris in Monte Carlo. When the Prince ordered a special dessert for himself and a young female companion, Henri Charpentier , then 16 (1880-1961), produced the flaming crepe dish. Edward reportedly asked that the dessert be named after his companion (Suzette) rather than himself. However, Larousse disputes Charpentier's claim.
- Talleyrand – a pineapple savarin is one of many dishes named for the epicurean French statesman Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754-1838). Influential negotiator at the Congress of Vienna, Talleyrand considered dining a major part of diplomacy. Antonin Câreme worked for him for a time, and Talleyrand was instrumental in furthering his career. The famous host's eponymous dishes include sauces, tournedos, veal, croquettes, et al.
- Tarte Tatin – Stephine Tatin (1838-1917) and Caroline Tatin (1847-1911). In French, the tarte is known as à la Demoiselles Tatin for the sisters who ran the Hotel Tatin in Lamotte Beuvron, France. Stephine allegedly invented the upside-down tart accidentally in the fall of 1898, but the pastry may be much older.
- Beef Tegetthoff – Admiral Wilhelm Tegetthoff (1827-1871), Austrian naval hero, is celebrated by this beef dish with seafood ragôut.
- Chicken Tetrazzini - named for operatic soprano Luisa Tetrazzini, the "Florentine Nightingale" (1871-1941), and created in San Francisco.
- Omelette André Theuriet – the French novelist and poet André Theuriet (1833-1907) has this omelette with truffles and asparagus named for him.
- Tootsie Rolls – Clara "Tootsie" Hirshfield , the small daughter of Leo Hirshfield , developer of the first paper-wrapped penny candy, in New York, 1896.
- Biscuit Tortoni – the Italian Tortoni , working at the Café Velloni which had opened in Paris in 1798, bought the place and renamed it the Café Tortoni . It became a very successful restaurant and ice cream parlor in the 19th century. This ice cream dish is said to be one of his creations.
- General Tso's Chicken – the Chinese-American dish (variously spelled Tzo, Cho, Zo, Zhou, etc.) may be named after General Zou Zang-Tang of the Qing Dynasty.
- Chicken Soup Ujházi – said to have been made of rooster originally, this soup was the creation of amateur chef and well-known Hungarian actor Ede Ujházi ca. 1900.
- Van Gogh potato – artist Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) is commemorated by this potato developed in the Netherlands in 1976.
- Sole Jules Verne – Jules Verne (1828-1905), the famous French novelist, had several dishes named after him besides this, including a sauce, a garnish, and meat dishes.
- Fillets of Brill Véron – Dr. Louis Désiré Véron (1798-1867) gave up his Parisian medical practice for the more fashionable life as a writer, manager of the Opera, paramour of the actress Rachel, political influence, and pre-eminent host of lavish dinners for the elite. Véron sauce accompanies the brill.
- Victoria plum and Victoria Sponge or Sandwich Cake – Queen Victoria (1819-1901). Many dishes are named for the British Queen - including sole, eggs, salad, a garnish, several sauces, a cherry spice cake, a bombe, small tarts, et al. There is also a Victoria pea and a Victoria apple .
- Celery Victor – Victor Hirtzler , (ca. 1875-1935) well-known American chef from Strasbourg, France considered this braised celery dish one of his two best recipes, the other being Sole Edward VII . Both dishes were created at San Francisco's St. Francis Hotel , where Hirtzler was head chef from 1904 to 1926.
- Pears Wanamaker – of the Philadelphia merchant Wanamaker family, Rodman Wanamaker (1863-1928) seems most likely to be the inspiration for this dish. The son of John Wanamaker, founder of the family business, Rodman Wanamaker went to Paris in 1889 to oversee the Paris branch of their department store. When he returned to the U.S. in 1899, he kept his Paris home and contacts.
- Washington Pie – George Washington (1732-1799), first U.S. president, has this cake named after him, as well as a French sauce or garnish containing corn.
- Martha Washington's Cake – Martha Washington (1731-1802), wife of George Washington, is remembered for this fruitcake. Her original recipe for her "Great Cake" called for 40 eggs, 5 pounds of fruit, and similar quantities of other ingredients.
- Chicken Raphael Weill – Raphael Weill (1837-1920) arrived in San Francisco from France at the age of 18. Within a few years he had founded what was to be one of California's largest department stores. Later he helped found the well-known Bohemian Club, which still exists. He liked to cook, and is remembered in San Francisco restaurants with this dish.
- Beef Wellington – Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), British hero of the Battle of Waterloo, has this dish of beef with pâté, mushrooms, truffles and Madeira sauce, all encased in a pastry crust, named after him. It was probably created by his personal chef. Stories vary - either the Duke had no sense of taste and didn't care what he was eating - leaving his chef to his own devices, or loved this so much it had to be served at every formal dinner, or the shape of the concoction resembles the famous Wellington boot.
- Lobster Wenberg – see Lobster Newberg .
- Lord Woolton Pie – Frederick Marquis, Lord Woolton , was the British Minister of Food during World War II. This root vegetable pie created by the chef at London's Savoy Hotel marked Woolton's drive to get people to eat more vegetables instead of meat.
- Potage à la Xavier – this cream soup with chicken has at least two stories associated with its name. Some sources say that the gourmand Louis XVIII (1755-1824) invented the soup when he was Comte de Provence, and known as Louis Stanislas Xavier de France. Others suggest the soup was named after Francis Xavier (1506-1552), a Basque missionary to Goa and India. The gout-suffering associate of Talleyrand would seem a more likely candidate than a 16th-century Christian missionary.
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The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details