Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
List of kings of Persia
The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian empires and their rulers:
The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Aryan, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Mede empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship betwen Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages of Southern India, but this is not universally accepted. The proto-elamites lived even as far back as 5500 BC in Iran. See remains here.
Avan Dynasty (precise dates unknown)
- Peli (fl. c. 2500 BC)
- Tata (precise dates unknown)
- Ukku-Takhesh (precise dates unknown)
- Khishur (precise dates unknown)
- Shushun-Tarana (precise dates unknown)
- Napil-Khush (precise dates unknown)
- Kikku-Sive-Temti (precise dates unknown)
- Lukh-Ishshan (fl. c. 24th century BC)
- Khelu (fl. c. 2300 BC)
- Khita (fl. c. 2275 BC)
- Kutik-Inshushinnak (fl. c. 2240 BC)
Simash Dynasty (precise dates unknown)
- Gir-Namme (fl. c. 2030 BC)
- Enpi-Luhhan (fl. c. 2010 BC)
- Khutran-Temtt (precise dates unknown)
- Kindattu (precise dates unknown)
- Indattu-Inshushinnak I (precise dates unknown)
- Tan-Rukhurater (precise dates unknown)
- Indattu-Inshushinnak II (precise dates unknown)
- Indattu-Napir (precise dates unknown)
- Indattu-Tempt (precise dates unknown)
Eparti Dynasty (precise dates unknown)
- Eparti I (precise dates unknown)
- Eparti II (precise dates unknown)
- Eparti III (fl. c. 1850 BC)
- Shilkhakha (precise dates unknown)
- Attakhushu (fl. c. 1830 BC)
- Sirukdukh (fl. c. 1792 BC)
- Shimut-Wartash (c. 1772 - c. 1770 BC)
Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1350 - c. 1200 BC)
- Ige-Halki (c. 1350 - c. 1330 BC)
- Pakhir-Ishshan (c. 1330 - c. 1310 BC)
- Attar-Kittakh (c. 1310 - c. 1300 BC)
- Khuman-Numena (c. 1300 - c. 1275 BC)
- Untash-Naprisha (c. 1275 - c. 1240 BC)
- Unpatar-Naprisha (c. 1240 - c. 1235 BC)
- Kiddin-Khutran (c. 1235 - c. 1210 BC)
Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1205 - c. 1100 BC)
- Khallutush-In-Shushinak (c. 1205 - c. 1185 BC)
- Shutruk-Nahhunte (c. 1185 - c. 1155 BC)
- Kutir-Nahhunte III (c. 1155 - c. 1150 BC)
- Shilkhak-In-Shushinak (c. 1150 - c. 1120 BC)
- Khutelutush-In-Shushinak (c. 1120 - c. 1110 BC)
- Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar (c. 1110 - ???? BC)
Late Elam Dynasty (743 - 644 BC)
- Khumbanigash I (743 - 717 BC)
- Shuttir-Nakhkhunte (717 - 699 BC)
- Khallushu (699 - 693 BC)
- Kutir-Nakhkhunte (693 - 692 BC)
- Khumma-Menanu (692 - 689 BC)
- Khumma-Khaldash I (689 - 681 BC)
- Khumma-Khaldash II (681 - 680 BC)
- Khumma-Khaldash II & Shilhak-In-Shushinak (680 - 676 BC)
- Shilhak-In-Shushinak & Urtaku (676 - 664 BC)
- Shilhak-In-Shushinak & Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664 - 653 BC)
- Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Khumbanigash II (653 - 651 BC)
- Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Tammaritu (651 - 649 BC)
- Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Indabigash (649 - 648 BC)
- Indabigash (648 - 647 BC)
- Khumma-Khaldash III (647 - 644 BC)
Jiroft (Aratta?) Kingdom, (~2500BC)
The recent archeological findings at Jiroft have uncovered an "independent, bronze age, civilization with its own architecture and language" that have led some archeologists to speculate it to be the remains of the lost Aratta Kingdom. 1
- Deioces 728-675 BC
- Phraortes 675-653 BC
- Madius the Scythian 653-625 BC
- Cyaxares 625-585 BC
- Astyages 585-550 BC
The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.
- Achaemenes, founder of the dynasty.
- Teispes of Anshan , his son.
- Cyrus I of Anshan, his son.
- Ariaramnes of Persia , son of Teispes and co-ruler of Cyrus I.
- Cambyses I of Anshan, son of Cyrus I.
- Arsames of Persia , son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler of Cambyses I
- Cyrus II the Great, son of Cambyses I, ruled from c.550 - 530 BC.
- Cambyses II, his son, ruled 530 - 521 BC.
- Smerdis, his alleged brother, ruled 521 BC
- Darius the Great, his brother-in-law and grandson of Arsames, ruled 521 -486 BC.
- Xerxes I, his son, ruled 486 -465 BC
- Artaxerxes I, his son, ruled 464 - 424 BC.
- Xerxes II, his son, ruled 424 - 423 BC.
- Sogdianus, his half-brother and rival, ruled 424 - 423 BC.
- Darius II, his half-brother and rival, ruled 424 - 404 BC.
- Artaxerxes II, his son, ruled 404 - 358 BC (see also Xenophon).
- Artaxerxes III,his son, ruled 358 - 338 BC
- Arses, his son, ruled 338 - 336 BC
- Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336 -330 BC
The epigraphic evidence for the rulers before Cyrus the Great is highly suspect, and often considered to have been invented by Darius I.
- Alexander the Great (330 BC-323 BC)
- Philip III Arrihadeus (323 BC-317 BC)
- Alexander IV (323 BC-310 BC)
- Seleucus I Nicator (312 BC/305 BC-281 BC)
- Antiochus I Soter (co-ruler from 291, ruled 281-261 BC)
- Antiochus II Theos (261-246 BC)
- Seleucus II Callinicus (246-225 BC)
- Seleucus III Ceraunus (225-223 BC)
- Antiochus III the Great (223-187 BC)
- Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 BC)
- Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC)
(The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253 BC, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd Century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia).
Sassanid dynasty, 224-651
- Ardashir I from 224 to 241.
- Shapur I from 241 to 272
- Hormizd I from 272 to 273.
- Bahram I from 273 to 276.
- Bahram II from 276 to 293.
- Bahram III year 293.
- Narseh from 293 to 302.
- Hormizd II from 302 to 310.
- Shapur II from 310 to 379
- Ardashir II from 379 to 383.
- Shapur III from 383 to 388.
- Bahram IV from 388 to 399.
- Yazdegerd I from 399 to 420.
- Bahram V from 420 to 438.
- Yazdegerd II from 438 to 457.
- Hormizd III from 457 to 459.
- Peroz I from 457 to 484.
- Balash from 484 to 488.
- Kavadh I from 488 to 531.
- Khosrau I from 531 to 579.
- Hormizd IV from 579 to 590.
- Khosrau II from 590 to 628.
- Kavadh II year 628.
- Ardashir III from 628 to 630.
- Peroz II year 629.
- Shahrbaraz year 630.
- Boran and others from 630 to 631.
- Hormizd VI (or V) from 631 to 632.
- Yazdegerd III from 632 to 651.
part of Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
part of Abbasid Caliphate, 750-867
- Taher ebne Hosein ebne Mos'ab 821-822
- Talhat ebne Taher 822-828
- Abdollah ebne Taher 828-844
- Taher ebne Abdollah 844-862
- Mohammad ebne Taher 862-872
- Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani 864-884
- Mohammad ebne Zeid 884-900
- Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini 913-916
- Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani 916-928
- Abolhojaj Mardavij ebne Ziyar 928-934
- Abu Taher Voshmgeer ebne Ziyar 934-967
- Zahir-ol-doleh Behsotoon 967-976
- Shams ol Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos 976-1012
- Falak ol Mo'ali Manuchehr ebne Ghabus 1012-1031
- Anushiravan ebne Manuchehr 1031-1043
Āl-i Buyeh, 932-1056
Diylamids of Fars
- Emad o-dowleh Abol Hasan 932-939
- Azad o-dowleh 939-982
- Sharaf o-dowleh 982-989
- Samsam o-dowleh 989-998
- Baha o-dowleh 998-1012
- Soltan o-dowleh 1012-1024
- Emad o-dowleh Abu Kalijar 1024-1048
- Malek Rahim Abu Nasr Khosrow Firuz 1048-1055
Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman
- Mo'ez o-dowleh 932-966
- Azad o-dowleh Bakhtiar 966-977
- Azado o-dowleh Abu Shoja' 977-982
- Baha o-dowleh 989-1012
- Soltan o-dowleh 1012-1021
- Abu Kalijar Marzban 1043-1048
- Ghavam o-dowleh 1012-1028
- Abu Mansur Fulad sotoon 1048-1056
Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan
- Rokn o-dowleh 932-976
- Mo'ayyed o-dowleh 976-983
- Fakhr o-dowleh 976-997
- Majd o-dowleh 997-1029
- Shams o-dowleh 997-1021
- Sama o-dowleh 1021-1023
- Abu Yusef Yaqub ebne Lais 861-878
- Amr o ebne Lais 878-900
- Abol Hasan Taher ebne Mohammad ebne Amro ebne Lais 900-908
- Lais ebne Ali ebne Lais 908-910
- Abu Ali Mohammad ebne Ali ebne Lais 910-910
- Abu Jafar Ahmad ebne Mohammad ebne Khalf 923-963
- Abu Ahmad Khalf ebne Ahmad 963-1002
- Amir Adel; Amir Mazi Abyu Ebrahim Esmail ebne Ahmad 892-907
- Amir Shaheed; Abu Nasr Ahmad ebne Esmail 907-913
- Amir Saeed; Abol Hasan Nasr ebne Ahmad 913-942
- Amir Hamid; Abu Mohammad Nuh ebne Nasr 942-954
- Amir Rashid; Abul Foares Abdolmaleh ebne Nuh 954-961
- Amir Mo'ayyed; Amir Sadeed Abu Saleh Mansur ebne Nuh 961-976
- Amir Radhi; Shahanshah Abolqasem Nuh ebne Mansur 976-996
- Amir Abol Hareth; Mansur ebne Nuh 996-998
- Amir Abol Foares; AbdolMalek ebne Nuh 998-998
- Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen 997-1030
- Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud 1030-1030
- Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud 1030-1040
- Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud 1040-1049
- Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud 1049-1049
- Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen 1049-1052
- Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud 1052-1059
- Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim 1059-1098
- Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim 1098-1115
- Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah 1115-1117
- Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud 1117-1153
- Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah 1153-1160
- Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah 1160-1186
Seljuk Turkic Sultans, 1029-1194
- Toğrül bin Mikail (Tughril Beg) 1037-1063
- Alp Arslan bin Chaghri 1063-1072
- Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I 1072-1092
- Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I 1092-1094
- Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq 1094-1105
- Mu'izz ad-Din Malik Shah II 1105
- Ghiyath ad-Din Mehmed I Tapar (Muhammad) 1105-1118
- Mu'izz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar 1097-1157
- Mahmud II 1118-1131
- Dawud (David) 1131-1132
- Toğrül II (Tughril Beg) 1132-1134
- Mas'ud 1134-1152
- Malik Shah III 1152-1153
- Mehmed II (Muhammad II) 1153-1160
- Süleyman Shah (Sulaiman Shah) 1160-1161
- Arslan Shah 1161-1176
- Toğrül III (Tughril Beg III) 1176-1194
- Ghotbedeen Mohammad ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh 1096-1128
- Alaodeen Abol Mozaffar ebne Ghotbedeen ebne Mohammad 1128-1156
- Tajedeen Abolfath Il Arsalan 1156-1171
- Jalaledeen Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan 1171-1172
- Aladdin Takesh ebne Il Arsalan 1172-1199
- Soltan Jalaledeen Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh1199-1220
- Jalaledeen ebne Aladdin Mohammad 1220-1230
- HülëgüKhan ebne Tulay ebne Genghis 1256-1265
- AbaqaKhan ebne Hulegu 1265-1281
- Sultan Ahmad Tekuder ebne Hulegu 1281-1284
- ArghunKhan ebne Abaqa 1284-1291
- Gaikhatu ebne Abaqa1291-1295
- Baidukhan ebne Toghay ebne Hulegu 1295
- Ghazankhan ebne Arghun 1295-1304
- Öljeitü Khoda bandeh ebne Arghun 1304-1316
- Abu Sa'id Bahadorkhan ebne Oljeitu 1316-1335 (last of Chinggisid il-khans)
- Arpa Ke'un 1335-1336
- Musa khan ebne Ali1336-1353
- Muhammad Khan ebne Mangu1337-1338
- Sati beg, dauther of Oljeitu 1338-1340
- Shah Jahan Teimoor ebne Alafarang 1338-1339
- Soleiman Khan 1340-1344
- Togha Teimoor Khan 1335-1352
- Anushiravan e Adel 1343-1355
Timurid dynasty 1380-1449
- Timur-i-Leng (1369 - 1405)
- Miran Shah (1405 - 1408)
- Shah Rukh (1408 - 1447)
- Ulugh Beg (1447 - 1449)
- Abdul Latif (1449 - 1450)
- Abu Sa'id (1452 - 1468)
- Hussein Bayqara (1468 - 1506)
- Zahiruddin Babur (1497 - 1512)
- Ismail I (1502-1524)
- Tahmasp I (1524-1576)
- Ismail II (1576-1578)
- Mohammad I (1578-1587)
- Abbas I the Great (1587-1629)
- Safi (1629-1642)
- Abbas II (1642-1667)
- Suleiman I (Safi II) (1667-1694)
- Sultan Hussein (1694-1722)
- Tahmasp II (1723-1732)
- Abbas III (1732-1736)
- Nadir Shah (1736-1747)
- Adel Shah (1747-1748)
- Ebrahim (1748-1748)
- Shahrokh of Khorasan (1748-1796)
- Nadir Mirza of Khorasan (1797-1802)
- Karim Khan 1750-1779
- Abol Fath Khan 1779-1779
- Alimorad Khan 1781-1784 and 1779
- MohammadAli Khan 1779-1779
- Sadeq Khan 1779-1781
- Jafar Khan 1781-1787
- Seydmorad Khan 1787-1789
- Lotf-Ali Khan 1789-1794
- Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (1796-1797)
- Fath Ali Shah (1797-1834)
- Mohammad Shah Qajar (1834-1848)
- Nasser-al-Din Shah (1848-1896)
- Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (1896-1907)
- Mohammad Ali Shah (1907-1909)
- Ahmad Shah Qajar (1909-1925)
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