Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
List of monarchs who lost their thrones or abdicated in the 20th century
The following monarchs either lost their thrones through deposition by a coup d'état, by a referendum which abolished their throne, or chose to abdicate during the 20th century. A list of surviving former monarchs appears at the end of the article. For monarchs deposed before 1900, see monarchs deposed in the 19th century.
- King Amanullah Shah was overthrown in 1929. (d.1960)
- Emir Habibullah Khan was overthrown in 1929 and executed later that year.
- King Mohammed Zahir Shah was deposed in coup in 1973.
- Prince William of Wied fled in 1914, following the outbreak of the First World War. (d.1945)
- King Zog of Albania (president turned monarch) was deposed by Italy under Mussolini in 1939. (d.1961)
- King Victor Emmanuel III was deposed in 1943 when Italy made peace with the Allies.
- Duke Joachim Ernst abdicated at the end of World War I in 1918. (d.1947)
- Emperor Karl abdicated as Emperor of Austria in 1918. (d.1922)
- Grand Duke Friedrich II abdicated in 1918. (d.1928)
- No ruler actually chosen, although offers were made to German Emperor Wilhelm II before it ceased to exist in 1918.
- Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Shrimant Maharaja Sir Pratapsinhrao Gaekwad, Sena Khas Khel Shamsher Bahadur , Maharaja of Baroda, deposed 1951.
- King Leopold III of the Belgians abdicated in 1951.
- King Baudouin of the Belgians was declared unable to reign by the Belgian parliament on April 4, 1990 and restored the next day.
- Maharaja Shri Brijendra Sawai Brijendra Singhji Bahadur Bahadur Jang, Maharaja of Bharatpur was deposed in 1971.
- Sikander Saulat, Iftikhar ul-Mulk, Nawab Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum Sahiba , Nawab Begum of Bhopal, abdicated in 1926.
- La Pawowoni Karaeng Segeri Arumpone of Bone was deposed in 1905.
- Haji Andi La Mappanjuki Karaeng Silayar Sri Sultan Ibrahim ibnu Sultan Husain Arumpone of Bone abdicated 1946, was restored 1950, and reigned again until 1960. (d.1967)
- Andi Pabenteng Arumpone of Bone was deposed in 1950.
- Duke Ernst August abdicated in 1918. (d.1953)
- Major-General H.H. Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Mutesa II Kabaka of Buganda was deposed by the abolition of the Ugandian kingdoms on September 8, 1967.
- Emir Muhammd Alim Khan was deposed in 1920 when his lands were taken over by Bolsheviks. (d.1934)
- Sri Ratu Anak Agung g Nyoman Panji Tisna Raja of Buleleng abdicated 1947 and was reinstalled in 1950. (d.1978)
- Sri Ratu Anak Agung Panji Sakti II Raja of Buleleng abdicated in 1950.
- King Ferdinand I abdicated in 1918.
- King Simeon II was deposed in plebiscite in 1946; he is currently Prime Minister of Bulgaria.
- King Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 1955, he served in various important positions, including prime minister and head of state, intermittently until 1976, and was eventually restored to the kingship in 1993.
- Queen Sisowath Monivong Kossamak was deposed in 1970 with the coup that ended the regime of Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The monarchy was restored in 1993 with Sihanouk (who had previously reigned from 1941 to 1955) as King.
- King Norodom Sihanouk abdicated again in 2004.
- Jean-Bédel Bokassa I , emperor of Central African Empire, he was deposed in 1979.
- Bua Laphan Ratsadany , prince of Champasak 1900–1904, was deposed when the principality was abolished on November 22, 1904.
- Emperor Puyi was forced to abdicate in 1912 following a Republican revolution. (d.1967)
- Duke-elect Wilhelm II was deposed following the end of World War I in 1918. (d.1941)
- The Axis puppet King Tomislav II (Prince Aimone of Savoy, Duke of Spoleto), who had never actually reigned, abdicated in 1943, when Italy made peace with the Allies.
- Kshatriya Kulavatana Sena Sapta Sahasri Senapati Pratinidhi, Meherban Shrimant Maharaja Sir Vikramsinhrao Tukojirao (Nana Sahib) Puar , Maharaja of Dewas, abdicated in 1947.
- King Farouk abdicated in 1952 in favor of his infant son Fuad II, who was deposed the next year when Egypt became a republic. (Farouk died 1965; Fuad is still living as of 2005.)
- Emperor Iyasu V was deposed 1916 for suspected conversion to the Muslim faith.
- Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed during communist revolution in 1975.
- Emperor Amha Selassie I, briefly emepror 1974–1975, was deposed by the abolition of the monarchy. (d.1997)
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom was deposed as Queen of Fiji following the 1987 coup which declared a republic.
- Grand Duke Nicholas II abdicated March 1917. The Russian Provisional Government continued to exercise grand ducal authority for its brief existence.
- At the end of World War I, the king-elect, Prince Friedrich Karl von Hessen, was offered but did not accede to the throne as Väinö I of Finland.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen of Gambia when the country became a republic in 1970.
- Kaiser Wilhelm II was deposed following Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918. (d.1941)
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1960.
- Le'ul-Ras Hailu Takla-Haymaynot , prince of Gojjam, was deposed 1932.
- Andi Ijo Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Lalolang Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad 'Abdu'l Kadir Aid ud-din ibnu Sultan Muhammad Tahir Muhib ud-din , Sultan of Gowa, was deposed by the Indonesian republic in 1960. (d.1978)
- King Constantine I was deposed in 1917 but returned to the throne in 1920.
- King Constantine I abdicated in 1922. (d.1923)
- King George II was deposed in 1924 by a referendum abolishing monarchy but returned to the throne in 1935.
- King Constantine II was deposed by another referendum abolishing monarchy in 1973 (and re-run in 1974).
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1970.
- Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig was deposed in 1918. (d.1937)
- King Charles IV lost his throne when a republic was established in 1918. Following the restoration of the Hungarian monarchy in 1920, he was refused permission to assume residency and constitutional functions in the Kingdom by the Regent of Hungary. Karl died in exile in 1922. The Kingdom of Hungary was abolished by communists following World War II.
- His Exalted Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VIII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Barakat 'Ali Khan Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang was deposed in 1971.
- King George VI of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India, ceased to be Emperor in 1947, when India gained its independence, and ceased to be King of India in 1950, when India became a republic. (d.1952)
- All the several hundred princely states (with a few exceptions) were abolished upon India's independence in 1947.
- Shah Reza Pahlavi abdicated in 1941. (d.1944)
- Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was deposed by revolution in 1979. (d. 1980)
- King George VI ceased to be King when the country became a republic in 1948. (d.1952)
- King Victor Emmanuel III abdicated in 1946. (d.1947)
- King Umberto II of Italy was deposed by a referendum abolishing monarchy in 1946. (d.1983)
- Sri Paduka Ratu Anak Agung Gusti Gedé Jelantik , Regent and Stedehouder of Karangasem , abdicated in 1908.
- Sri Paduka Ratu Anak Agung Agung Anglurah Ketut Karangasem , Raja of the State of Karangase , abdicated in 1950.
- Sri Paduka Ratu Anak Agung Agung Ngurah Ketut Karangasem , Raja of the State of Karangasem , reign briefly in 1950. Karangasem was added to Indonesia in 1950; he continued to reign as a nominal Raja till his death in 1991.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be queen when Kenya became a republic in 1964.
- Khan Abd Allah Khan was deposed 1920; his lands were taken over by Bolsheviks.
- The Lyunghui Emperor was deposed by the Japanese in 1910.
- Sharif 'Abbas ibni al-Marhum Sharif Hasan 'Ali al-Idrus , Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Kubu, was deposed in 1911.
- Sharif Muhammad Zainal Idrus ibni al-Marhum Sharif Ismail al-Idrus , Tuan Besar of Kubu, abdicated in 1921.
- Sharif Salih ibni al-Marhum Idrus al-Idrus , Tuan Besar of Kubu, was deposed by the Japanese in 1943.
- Sharif Hasan ibni al-Marhum Sharif Muhammad Zainal Idrus al-Idrus , Tuan Besar of Kubu, was deposed by the Indonesian
- Raja Don Ote Nicolaas Isu Nisnoni , Raja of Kupang, abdicated in 1945.
- Raja Don Obe Alfonsus Nisnoni , Raja of Kupang, was deposed by the Indonesian republic in 1960. (d.1992)
- Sri Paduka Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit al-Adil Khalifat ul-Muminin , Sultan of Kutai Karta Negara, was deposed by the Indonesian government in 1960. (d.1981)
Lambjang and Kaski
- Sri Sri Sri Maharaja Juddha Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana, T'ung-ling- ping-ma-Kuo-Kang-wang , Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski 1932–1945, abdicated on November 29, 1945.
- Sri Sri Sri Maharaja Padma Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana , Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski 1945–1948, abdicated in 1948.
- Sri Sri Sri Maharaja Mohan Shamsher Jung Bahadur Rana Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski 1948–1951, was deprived of all the hereditary offices and priviledges conferred on Jung Bahadur in 1857 on February 18, 1951.
- King Moshoeshoe II was deposed in 1990 and reinstated in 1995. (d.1996)
- King Letsie III took the throne upon his father's, Moshoeshoe II, deposition in 1990. He was later deposed in favor of his father (1995), and then reclaimed the throne on his father's death in 1996.
- Paduka Sri Sultan 'Abdu'l-Rahman II Mu'azzam Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja Muhammad Yusuf al-Mahdi , Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Lingga, Riau, was deposed in absentia in 1911.
- Prince Leopold IV was deposed in 1918. (d.1949)
- The German puppet King Mindaugas II , was deposed following the end of the First World War in 1918.
- Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaďde was forced to abdicate in 1919 due to political issues. (d. 1924)
- Her sister and successor Grand Duchess Charlotte also abdicated, in 1964. (d. 1985)
- Charlotte's son and successor Grand Duke Jean abdicated in favour of his son Henri in 2000.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be queen when the country became a republic in 1966.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be queen when the country became a republic in 1974.
- Emperor Pu-yi was deposed in 1945.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen of Mauritius following a 1992 referendum.
- Grand Duke Friedrich Franz IV was deposed in 1918. (d.1945)
- The last Grand Duke, Adolf Friedrich VI , committed suicide in February 1918. From then until the abolition of the monarchy in 1918, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin acted as regent.
- King Nikola was deposed after the First World War, when Montenegro became part of Yugoslavia.
- Queen Wilhelmina abdicated the throne in favour of her daughter Juliana in 1948. (d.1962)
- Queen Juliana abdicated in favour of her daughter Beatrix in 1980. (d.2004)
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1963.
- King Oscar II was replaced in 1905, ending the Swedish-Norwegian personal union. (d. 1907)
- Grand Duke Friedrich August was deposed in 1918. (d.1931)
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen of Pakistan when it became a republic in 1956.
- The portion of Poland formerly ruled by Russia was occupied by Germany and Austria in 1915 and proclaimed an independent kingdom in 1916. Archduke Karl Stefan of Austria was named King-elect, but the nation was declared a republic without ever actually having had a King in the 20th century.
- King Manuel II fled following a revolution in 1910. (d.1932)
- King Wilhelm II was overthrown from the Prussian and German thrones after World War I. (d.1941)
- Shaikh 'Abdu'llah bin Jasim Al-Thani , Ruler of Qatar, abdicated in 1949. (d.1957)
- Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of Qatar, was deposed by his son Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa on June 27, 1995
Reuss Elder Line
- Prince Henry XXIV was deposed in 1918. (d.1927)
Reuss Younger Line
- Prince Henry XXVII was deposed in 1918. (d.1928)
- King Michael I was removed as king in favor of his father Carol II in 1930.
- King Carol II abdicated in 1940.
- King Michael was deposed again by the communist-dominated government in 1947.
- Emperor Nicholas II abdicated after the February Revolution of 1917, as did his named successor, his brother Grand Duke Michael (possibly known for a very short time as Michael II). Both Nicholas II and Michael separately were later murdered, as was all of Nicholas II's family in 1918 (see the House of Romanov). The monarchy was abolished and replaced by a Russian republic under Lenin, which in 1922 became the Soviet Union.
Rwanda (the Tutsi state)
- Kigeri V was deposed 1961.
- King Saud was deposed by a coup in 1964.
- Duke Ernst II was deposed in 1918. (d.1955)
- Duke Karl Eduard was deposed in 1918. (d.1954)
- Duke Bernhard III was deposed in 1918. (d.1928)
- Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst was deposed in 1918. (d.1923)
- King Frederick Augustus III was deposed at the end of the First World War in 1918 with all the other German monarchs. (d.1932)
- Prince Adolf II was deposed in 1918. (d.1936)
- Paduka Sri Sultan Tuanku Sulaiman Sharif ul-'Alam Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Bashar un-din [Al-Marhum Perbaungan], Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Serdang, was deposed in 1946.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1971.
- Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be Queen when South Africa became a republic in 1961.
- King Alfonso XIII fled following republican wins in local elections in 1931. (d.1941; The monarchy was restored in 1975 under his grandson, King Juan Carlos.)
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1972.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be queen when the country became a republic in 1962.
- King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) abdicated in 1935.
- Tenzin Gyatso was forced to flee from Tibet in 1959 because of the Chinese ocupation. He retains the title of Dalai Lama.
- Le'ul Ras Seyum Mangasha , prince of Tigray, was deposed in 1921 and reinstalled in 1941.
- Rukirabasaija Patrick David Matthew Koboyo Olimi III was deposed by the abolition of the Ugandian kingdoms on September 8, 1967.
- Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchi Pala Bala Rama Varma II (Sri Chithira Tirunal), Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, was deposed in 1971.
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1976.
- King Muhammad al-Amin was deposed when Tunisia became a republic in 1957. (d.1962)
- Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceased to be Queen when the country became a republic in 1963.
- King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom abdicated on December 11, 1936, later becoming the Duke of Windsor. (d.1972)
- Emperor Bao Dai abdicated in 1945 when communists seized control of the nation. Following the Geneva accords, Vietnam was partitioned and Bao Dai became Head of State (Quoc Truong) of the French controlled areas of Vietnam. He was never restored as emperor, and in 1955 was removed from office via referendum. (d.1997)
Waldeck and Pyrmont
- Prince Friedrich was deposed in 1918. (d.1946)
- King William II was deposed in 1918. (d.1921)
- King Muhammad al-Badr was deposed in 1962
(Zanzibar was later united with Tanganyika; see Peoples Republic of Zanzibar for information on Zanzibar after 1964.)
- Sultan Sayyid 'Ali II bin Hamud Sultan of Zanzibar, abdicated 1911
- Sultan Sayyid Jamshid bin 'Abdu'llah Sultan of Zanzibar 1964
Surviving monarchs from abolished monarchies
- King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan (b.1914)
- King Constantine II of Greece (b.1940)
- King Fuad II of Egypt (b.1952)
- Queen Elizabeth II of Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and Malta (b.1926)
- King Simeon II of Bulgaria (b.1937; He is serving as Prime Minister as of 2004.)
- King Michael of Romania (b.1921)
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