Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The term locality has different meanings in different disciplines:
In geography, a locality is a place. This is the primary meaning of the term, from which other uses derive.
Specifically, the term "locality" is used by the United States Board on Geographic Names to refer to the name of a place that is neither a legally incorporated or defined entity (like a township or city), nor a specific geographical feature such as a river or mountain.
In statistics, locality is used to mean the central tendency of a data set. More frequently, the word location is used. Thus the mean and median are measures of locality. This usage is frequent in exploratory data analysis.
The word location also denotes a parameter that parametrizes a family of probability distributions in a shift-equivariant way.
While conventional measures of locality, such as arithmetic mean are often seen as the most straightforward way to describe locality, they are very sensitive to outliers. Thus the median value, which does not have any dependence on extreme outliers, is frequently used instead when the data set is relatively large.
- Open-Site Regional - Locality information for numerous countries.
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