Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Los Angeles International Airport
|Los Angeles International Airport|
|Type of airport||commercial|
|Operator||Los Angeles World Airports|
|Opened||October 1, 1928|
|City||Los Angeles, California, United States|
|Number of passengers||~55,000,000|
|Number of takeoffs/Landings||622,378|
|Comments on this test infobox|
This article is the most common use of LAX. For other uses, see LAX (disambiguation).
Los Angeles International Airport (IATA airport code: LAX, ICAO airport code: KLAX), is the primary airport serving Los Angeles, California. It is generally referred to by Southern Californians as simply "LAX." The airport is estimated to be the world's fifth busiest airport, serving some 55 million passengers and more than 2 million tons of freight in 2003. It is also the fourth busiest airport in the United States, and the busiest international gateway.
LAX has service to destinations in the United States, as well as to Canada, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Australasia. It is a hub for United Airlines and American Airlines and was previously a hub for Air California, Delta Air Lines, Pacific Southwest Airlines, US Airways, and Western Airlines, and the Flying Tiger Line.
The airport occupies some 3,425 acres (14 km²) of the city on the Pacific coast, about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of downtown Los Angeles. It can be reached using the Century Boulevard exit on Interstate 405, or the Sepulveda Boulevard exit on Interstate 105. There is also a shuttle that connects to the Aviation/I-105 station on the MTA Green Line light rail. The line was originally intended to connect directly to the airport, but budgetary restraints and opposition from local long-term parking lot owners slowed progress. The airport's coastal location exposes it to fog, during which flights are often diverted to Ontario International Airport, some 55.7 miles (90 km) to the east.
In 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected 640 acres (2.6 km²) in the southern part of Westchester as the site of a new airport for the city. The fields of wheat, barley and lima beans were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings. It was named Mines Field for William W. Mines, the real estate agent who arranged the deal. The first structure, Hangar No. 1, was erected in 1929 and is now a historic landmark .
Mines Field was dedicated and opened as the official airport of Los Angeles in 1930, and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937. The name was officially changed to Los Angeles Airport in 1941, and to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in 1949. Prior to that time, the main airport for Los Angeles was the "Grand Central Airport" in Glendale.
Until this time, the entire airport was located east of Sepulveda Boulevard. As the airport expanded westward to meet the Pacific Ocean, a tunnel was completed in 1953 so that Sepulveda Boulevard would pass underneath the runways. It was the first tunnel of its kind.
The distinctive white "Theme Building", constructed in 1961, resembles a flying saucer that has landed on its four legs. It was designed by a team of architects and engineers including Paul Williams and Welton Beckett . A restaurant that provides a sweeping view of the airport is suspended beneath two intersecting arches that form the legs. The L.A. City Council designated the building a cultural and historical monument in 1992. A $4 million renovation, with retro-futuristic interior and electric lighting designed by Disney Imagineering, was completed before the "Encounter Restaurant" opened there in 1997.
Groundbreaking for the new Tom Bradley International Terminal was conducted in 1982 by Mayor Tom Bradley and World War II aviator General James Doolittle, and the US$123 million terminal was opened in 1984. In 1996, a new 277 foot (84 m) tall air traffic control tower, with overhanging awnings that shade the windows and make the building vaguely resemble a palm tree, was constructed at a cost of US$29 million.
Soon afterward, fourteen plexiglass cylinders, each up to ten stories high, were placed in a circle around the intersection of Sepulveda Boulevard and Century Boulevard, with additional cylinders of decreasing height following Century Boulevard eastward. The cylinders, lit from inside, slowly cycle through a rainbow of colors, and provide an additional landmark for visitors arriving by air at night.
Plane crashes and terrorism
On September 25, 1978, Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 182, which was on a Sacramento-Los Angeles International Airport-Lindbergh Field, San Diego route, crashed while trying to land at Lindbergh Field, killing everyone on board, 2 on a small aircraft, and 7 on the ground.
On the morning of August 2, 1985, Delta Air Lines Flight 191, on a Fort Lauderdale-Dallas-Los Angeles route, crashed at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, killing 136 of the 167 passengers on board.
If Project Bojinka had not been discovered after a fire in Manila, Philippines, one or more aircraft owned by a U.S. carrier/s in this airport would have blown up over the Pacific Ocean on January 21, 1995 as part of the project's first phase.
On October 2, 1996, AeroPeru Flight 603, a Boeing 757 that was enroute from Arturo Merino Benitez International Airport in Santiago, Chile via Lima's Jorge Chavez International Airport to Los Angeles International Airport crashed in the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Everyone on board died.
In the year 2000, Al-Qaeda attempted to bomb LAX during the millennium holiday although the bomber was caught at the US-Canadian border. Ahmed Ressam was captured in Port Angeles, Washington for having explosives in the trunk of his car. The plot was part of the 2000 millennium attack plots.
Three of the flights crashed during September 11, 2001, American Airlines Flight 11 (WTC North Tower), American Airlines Flight 77 (Pentagon), and United Airlines Flight 175 (WTC South Tower), were headed to Los Angeles International Airport.
On July 4, 2002, a gunman killed 2 Israelis at the ticket counter of El Al Airlines at LAX. Although the gunman was not linked to any terrorist group, the man (an Egyptian) was upset at US support for Israel, and therefore was motivated by political disagreement. This led the FBI to classify this shooting as a terrorist act, one of the few on US soil since September 11, 2001.
LAX has nine passenger terminals arranged in a "U" and served by a shuttle bus.
- America West Airlines (Acapulco, Boston, Edmonton, Las Vegas, Mazatlan, New York/Kennedy, Phoenix, Puerto Vallarta, and Vancouver)
- Southwest Airlines (Albuquerque, Austin, Baltimore/Washington, Birmingham, Boise, Buffalo, Chicago/ Midway, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit, El Paso, Ft. Lauderdale, Hartford, Houston/Hobby, Indianapolis, Long Island/Islip, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Little Rock, Louisville, Lubbock, Manchester (NH), Midland, Nashville, New Orleans, Oakland, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Providence, Reno, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Jose (CA), Seattle, Spokane, Tampa, Tucson, and Tulsa)
- USAirways (Charlotte, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh)
- Air Canada (Calgary, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver)
- Air China (Beijing and Shanghai)
- Air Mobility Command
- Air New Zealand (Auckland and Papeete)
- Aviacsa (Mexico City)
- Hawaiian Airlines (Honolulu)
- Interstate Jet (Seasonal/Charter Airline)
- KLM (Amsterdam)
- Miami Air (Seasonal/Charter Airline)
- Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Honolulu, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and Tokyo/Narita)
- Omni Air International (Charter/Seasonal Airline) (Domestic)
- TACA (Guatemala City, Lima, Managua, San José (CR), and San Salvador)
- Virgin Atlantic (London/Heathrow)
- World Airways (Charter/Seasonal Airline)
- AirTran (Atlanta and Dallas/Ft. Worth)
- Alaska Airlines (Anchorage, Boise, Calgary, Cancun, Guadalajara, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Portland (OR), Puerto Vallarta, Reno, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Spokane, Vancouver, and Washington/Reagan)
- American Trans Air (Cancun, Chicago/Midway, Honolulu, Indianapolis, Kahului)
- Frontier Airlines (Denver, Philadelphia)
- Horizon Airlines (Boise, Bozeman, Eugene, Medford, and Sun Valley)
- Midwest Airlines (Milwaukee)
- WestJet (Calgary and Vancouver)
- American Airlines (Austin, Boston, Chicago/O'Hare, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Denver, Ft. Lauderdale, Guatemala City, Honolulu, Kahului, Kona, Las Vegas, Lihue, London/Heathrow, Miami, Nashville, Newark, New York/Kennedy, Orlando, San Francisco, San Jose (CR), San Juan, San Salvador, St. Louis, Tokyo/Narita, Toronto, and Washington/Dulles)
- American Eagle (Carmel/Monterey, Fayetteville, Fresno, Palm Springs, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara)
- Qantas (Arrivals/Departures) (Sydney and New York/Kennedy)
- Aerolitoral (Hermosillo, La Paz, and Loreto)
- Aeroméxico (Arrivals)
- Air France (Papeete and Paris/Charles de Gaulle)
- Air Jamaica (Montego Bay)
- China Southern Airlines (Guangzhou)
- Delta Air Lines (Atlanta, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, and Salt Lake City)
- Omni Air International (Charter/Seasonal Airline) (International)
- Song (Ft. Lauderdale, Orlando, and Tampa)
- Spirit Airlines (Detroit)
- Sun Country Airlines (Minneapolis/St. Paul)
- Aeromexico (Departures)
- Continental Airlines (Cleveland, Honolulu, Houston/Intercontinental, and Newark)
- Continental Express (Aguascalientes, Leon/Guanajuato, Montrose/Telluride, and Morelia)
- Copa Airlines (Departures) (Panama City)
- Air Wisconsin dba United Express (Aspen)
- Skywest dba United Express (Bakersfield, Carlsbad, Colorado Springs, Fresno, Imperial, Inyokern, Monterey, Oakland, Ontario(CA), Orange County (Santa Ana), Oxnard, Palm Springs, Phoenix, Reno, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Jose, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, St. George, Tucson, Visalia, and Yuma)
- United Airlines (International Non-Stop Flights only) (Amsterdam, Beijing, Buenos Aires, Frankfurt, Guatemala City, Hong Kong, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, London/Heathrow, Melbourne, Osaka/Kansai, Paris/Charles de Gaulle, San Jose, Costa Rica, San Salvador, Shanghai, Sydney, and Tokyo/Narita)
- Air Wisconsin and Skywest dba United Express (Destinations listed under Terminal 6)
- United Airlines (Domestic Flights) (Baltimore/Washington, Boston, Chicago/O'Hare, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Denver, Honolulu, Kahului, Kona, Lihue, New Orleans, New York/Kennedy, New York/LaGuardia, Newark, Oakland, Orlando, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, and Washington/Dulles)
- Ted (Las Vegas)
Tom Bradley International Terminal
- Aer Lingus (Dublin)
- Aero California (Cabo San Lucas, Culiacán, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, La Paz, Los Mochis, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Mexico City, Monterrey, Puerto Vallarta, Tampico, and Torreón)
- Aeroflot (Moscow)
- Air India (Mumbai (via Frankfurt))
- Air Pacific (Nadi)
- Air Tahiti Nui (Auckland, Papeete, and Paris/Charles de Gaulle)
- Alaska Airlines (Mexico Arrivals) (Cancún, Guadalajara, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, and Puerto Vallarta)
- All Nippon Airways (Tokyo/Narita)
- Asiana Airlines (Seoul/Inchon)
- British Airways (London/Heathrow)
- Cathay Pacific (Hong Kong)
- China Airlines (Taipei)
- China Eastern Airlines (Beijing and Shanghai)
- Copa Airlines (Arrivals) (Panama City)
- El Al Israel Airlines (Tel Aviv (via Toronto))
- EVA Air (Taipei)
- Japan Airlines (Osaka and Tokyo/Narita)
- Korean Air (Seoul/Inchon and Tokyo/Narita)
- LAN Chile (Buenos Aires and Santiago)
- LAN Peru (Lima)
- LTU International (Dusseldorf)
- Lufthansa (Frankfurt and Munich)
- Malaysia Airlines (Kuala Lumpur and Taipei)
- Mexicana (Cancún, Guadalajara, León/Guanajuato, Los Cabos, Mazatlán, Mexico City, Morelia, and Zacatecas)
- Philippine Airlines (Manila)
- Qantas (Some Departures Only)(Auckland, Brisbane, and Melbourne)
- Singapore Airlines (Singapore (via Taipei and Tokyo/Narita))
- Swiss International Airlines (Zurich)
- TACA (Evening Arrivals Only) (Guatemala City, Lima, Managua, San José (CR), and San Salvador)
- Thai Airways International (Bangkok and Osaka)
- Varig (Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo)
There are several air cargo facilities at LAX, totalling 2 million square feet (186,000 m²). LAX also has a heliport operated by Bravo Aviation .
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