Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Starting MS-DOS... C:\>_
|An example of MS-DOS's command line interface, this one showing that the current directory is the root of drive C|
Microsoft's disk operating system, MS-DOS was the first operating system for the IBM PC (branded as PC-DOS) , and until recently was widely used on the PC compatible platform (its usage has gradually been replaced on consumer desktop computers with various generations of the Windows operating system). It was originally released with the PC in 1981 and had eight major versions before Microsoft stopped development in 2000. It was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming languages company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources.
MS-DOS was created by computer manufacturer Seattle Computer Products as 86-DOS, commonly known as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System). In a sequence of events that would later inspire much folklore, Microsoft licensed QDOS to IBM on behalf of SCP. Microsoft acquired the system from SCP shortly before the PC's release.
IBM and Microsoft both released versions of DOS. Originally, IBM only validated and packaged Microsoft developments, and thus IBM's versions tended to be released shortly after MS's. However, MS-DOS 4.0 was actually based on IBM PC-DOS 4.0, as Microsoft was by then concentrating on OS/2 development. Microsoft released its versions under the name "MS-DOS", while IBM released its versions under the name "PC DOS" - note, no hyphen - with the following timeline:
- PC DOS 1.0 - August, 1981 - Initial release with the first IBM-PC
- PC DOS 1.1 - May, 1982
- MS-DOS 1.25 - May, 1982 - First release for non-IBM hardware
- MS-DOS 2.0 - March, 1983 - Introduced features from Unix such as subdirectories, handle-based file operations, command input/output redirection, and pipes. Fearing copyright infringment complaints from AT&T, Microsoft decided to use backslashes as pathname separators rather than normal forward-slashes.
- PC DOS 2.1 - October, 1983
- MS-DOS 2.11 - March, 1984
- MS-DOS 3.0 - August, 1984
- MS-DOS 3.1 - November, 1984
- MS-DOS 3.2 - January, 1986 - Supported 2 hard disk partitions of up to 32MB, one primary and one "logical drive" in an "extended partition"
- PC DOS 3.3 - April, 1987
- MS-DOS 3.3 - August, 1987 - Supported multiple logical drives
- MS-DOS 4.0 - June, 1988 - actually derived from IBM's codebase rather than the reverse
- PC DOS 4.0 - July, 1988 - added the DOS Shell, a graphical menu selector, & support for hard disks of >32MB using the format from Compaq DOS 3.31. Also added many bugs and offered less free conventional memory than before. Generally regarded as an unsuccessful release and to be avoided
- MS-DOS 4.01 - November, 1988 - bug-fix release
- MS-DOS 5.0 - June, 1991 - In response to DR-DOS 5.0, adds comparable features to that product: memory management, full-screen editor, QBasic programming language, online help, and DOS Shell gains task switcher. See DR-DOS article for more information
- MS-DOS 6.0 - March, 1993 - Response to DR-DOS 6.0. Added DoubleSpace disk compression (copied from Stacker) and other features
- MS-DOS 6.2 - November, 1993 - Bug fix release
- MS-DOS 6.21 - February, 1994 - Following Stac lawsuit, removed DoubleSpace disk compression
- PC DOS 6.3 - April, 1994
- MS-DOS 6.22 - June, 1994 - Last stand-alone version. DoubleSpace replaced with non-infringing but compatible DriveSpace tool
- PC DOS 7.0 - April, 1995 - Bundles Stacker in place of DriveSpace
- Windows 95/MS-DOS 7.0 - August, 1995 - First version not released stand-alone
- Windows 95 OSR2/MS-DOS 7.1 (AKA Windows 95B) - August, 1996 - Added support for FAT32 file system
- Windows 98 - June, 1998 - Embedded DOS substantially unchanged from Win95B
- Windows Me/MS-DOS 8.0 - September 14, 2000 - Final version of MS-DOS. Removes SYS command, ability to boot to command line and other features
- PC DOS 2000 - Year 2000-compliant version with minor additional features. Final member of the MS-DOS family
Source: PC Museum
MS-DOS grew in spurts, with many significant features being taken from other products and operating systems, such as Microsoft's own Xenix - a variant on Unix - and Digital Research's DR-DOS, as well as tools and utilities including Norton Utilities, PC Tools (Microsoft Anti-Virus), QEMM, Stacker and so on.
With Intel's introduction of the 80286 microprocessor, IBM and Microsoft began work on a joint project called OS/2, originally a protected-mode version of MS-DOS with a GUI. Later, Microsoft abandoned the project to devote full resources to Windows and Windows NT. Digital Research created the GEM environment, which reached minimal popularity on PC compatibles - it was very successful on the Atari ST machines - but got ultimately eclipsed by Microsoft's Windows 3.0 release.
As a response to the Digital Research's DR-DOS 6.0, which bundled SuperStor disk compression, Microsoft opened negotiations with Stac Electronics, vendor of the most popular DOS disk compression tool, Stacker. Stac was unwilling to meet Microsoft's terms for licensing Stacker and withdrew from the negotiations.
Soon, MS-DOS 6.0 was released, including the Microsoft DoubleSpace disk compression system. Stac investigated this and discovered that it contained portions of code copied from Stacker, the source code of which Stac had shown to Microsoft during the bundling talks. Stac successfully sued Microsoft for patent infringement regarding the compression algorithm used in DoubleSpace.
This resulted in the release of MS-DOS 6.21, which had disk-compression removed. Shortly afterwards came version 6.22, with a new version of the disk compression system, DriveSpace, rewritten to avoid the infringing code.
These tactics were common for Microsoft; the company lost another lawsuit resulting from code in Windows 3.1 which caused spurious errors when Windows was launched on DR-DOS. See the DR-DOS article for more on this and Embrace, extend and extinguish for more on Microsoft anti-competitive manouevres.
Prior to 1995, Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to computer manufacturers under three types of agreement: per-processor (a fee for each system the company sold), per-system (a fee for each system of a particular model), or per-copy (a fee for each copy of MS-DOS installed). The largest manufacturers used the per-processor arrangement, which had the lowest fee. This arrangement made it expensive for the large manufacturers to migrate to any other operating system, such as DR-DOS. In 1994 the US government charged Microsoft with violations of antitrust law, and a settlement agreement limited Microsoft to per-system licensing. Digital Research did not gain by this settlement, and years later its successor in interest Caldera sued Microsoft for damages. This lawsuit was settled with a monetary payment of 150 million dollars.
MS-DOS was not designed to be a multi-user or multitasking operating system, but many attempts were made to retrofit these capabilities. The Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) system call originally targeted at loadable device drivers and other mostly-undocumented functions were used to create pop-up applications. Borland's Sidekick personal productivity product was a notable specimen. Add-on environments like TopView and especially DESQview attempted to provide multitasking, and achieved some success when later combined with the virtual 8086 mode and virtual memory features of the Intel 80386 and later processors. Windows/386 2.1 and subsequent versions provided similar albeit poorer features when running in "386 enhanced" mode, but Microsoft never specifically marketed this possibility and was mostly interested in converting customers to using GUI-mode Windows applications.
MS-DOS employs a command line interface and a batch scripting facility via its command interpreter,
command.com. MS-DOS was designed so users could easily substitute a different command line interpreter, for example 4DOS.
MS-DOS compatibility with other Microsoft operating systems
After the release of the Apple Macintosh in 1984, IBM personal computer users also desired a graphical user interface. Many programs running under MS-DOS tried to fill the void by creating their own graphical interface, such as Microsoft Word for DOS, XTree, and the Norton Shell. However, this required duplication of effort and did not provide much consistency in interface design (even between product lines).
Early versions of Microsoft Windows were ordinary programs which ran on top of MS-DOS and its clones. Later versions were launched from DOS but "extended" it by going into protected mode. Still later versions of MS Windows ran independently of DOS but included much of the old code such that DOS could run in virtual machines under the new OS.
Several similar products were produced by other companies. In the case of PC-DOS and DR-DOS, it is common but incorrect to call these "clones". Given that Microsoft manufactured PC-DOS for IBM, PC-DOS and MS-DOS were (to continue the genetic analogy) "identical twins" that diverged only in adulthood and eventually became quite different products; DR-DOS was a clone of itself once removed.
Under Linux it is possible to run copies of DOS and many of its clones under dosemu, a Linux-native virtual machine for running real mode programs. There are a number of other emulators for running DOS under various versions of UNIX, even on non-x86 platforms.
- List of DOS commands
- Microsoft Windows
- History of Microsoft Windows
- Bad command or file name
- Comparison of MS-DOS and DOS-compatible operating systems
- Tim Patterson on DOS, the guy who wrote the QDOS OS, many articles here
- Richard Bonner's DOS website
- Batfiles: The DOS batch file programming handbook and tutorial
- MS-DOS Reference
- A Brief Timeline of DOS
- Ralf Brown's Interrupt List
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