Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Malaysian expressway system
Malaysian expressway system(Sistem lebuhraya Malaysia) is a system of expressway networks in Malaysia. Starting from North-South Expressway, there are numerous of new expressways being built in Malaysia by private companies and all these progress are monitored by Malaysian Highway Authority (Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia).
Expressway definition in Malaysia
In Malaysia, expressway are defined as high-speed routes with at least 4 lanes (2 on each directions) and may be either limited access or partial access. Most expressways in Malaysia are limited access expressways.
In Malaysia, federal routes are labeled with only numbers while state routes are labeled with the state code letter followed by assigned numbers, for example Route J32 is a Johor state road. Both federal and state roads have blue road signs and the text color is white.
Before mid 1990s, there were no certain coding system for the expressways. When more and more expressways were built, a system of expressway numbering was applied to all expressways. Expressways are labeled with the letter E followed by assigned numbers, for example the code for North-South Expressway southern route is E2. The expressways have green signs and the text color is white.
However, there are some exceptions in some highways. Some highways like Federal Highway and Skudai Highway (Federal Route 1) retain their federal route codes.
The syntax for highway exits in Malaysia is in format Exit xxnn, where xx is the expressway code number (can be one or two digits) and nn is the two-digit assigned number for each highway exits. For example, Johor Bahru exit at the end of North-South Expressway is labeled as Exit 257, where the last two digits (57) are the assigned exit number and the first digits (2) is the expressway route number (E2).
All expressways must have at least 4 lanes (2 on each directions) separated by a median divider. Both sides must have an emergency lane. The median divider in Malaysian expressways are usually narrow due to high costs of claiming lands. However, median dividers at some parts of North-South Expressway and Karak Expressway are wide.
The default speed limit in Malaysian expressways is 110 km/h, but in certain areas lower speed limit is applied especially in large urban areas and in dangerous mountain routes.
There are several controversial issues regarding the construction of expressways. The main issues include the toll rate increase which can be a huge burden especially for residents of Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley conurbation. They also often question about the capability of the numerous expressways throughout the Klang Valley to overcome the traffic congestion problem because the traffic congestion problem is still worsened no matter how many new expressways are built.
List of expressways in Malaysia
- E1: North-South Expressway (northern route, including North Klang Valley Expressway and Penang Bridge)
- E2: North-South Expressway (southern route)
- E3: Malaysia-Singapore Second Link Expressway
- E5: Shah Alam Expressway
- E6: North-South Expressway Central Link
- E7: Cheras Expressway
- E8: Karak Expressway
- E9: Sungai Besi Expressway
- E10: New Pantai Expressway
- E11: Damansara-Puchong Expressway
- E12: Ampang-Kuala Lumpur Elevated Expressway
- E15: Butterworth-Kulim Expressway
- E18: Kajang Dispersial Link Expressway
- E22: East Coast Expressway
- E23: Sprint Expressway
- E29: Seremban-Port Dickson Expressway
- 1: Skudai Highway
- 2: Federal Highway
- 17: Pasir Gudang Highway
- 20: Klang Straits Expressway
- 28: Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 2
- Malaysian Highway Authority
- Plus Expressway Berhad - concession holder for North-South Expressway, Malaysia-Singapore Second Link Expressway , North-South Expressway Central Link , Seremban-Port Dickson Expressway and Penang Bridge
- MTD Infraperdana - concession holder for Karak Expressway and East Coast Expressway
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