Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Early Marathi Literature (before 1800 AD)
Marathi literature started with religious writings by the saint-poets belonging to Mahanubhava and Warkari sects. Mahanubhava saints used prose as their main medium, while Warkari saints preferred poetry as the medium. The early saint-poets were Mukundaraj 'Vivekasindhu', Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296) (who wrote Bhawarthadipika, a 9000-couplets long commentary on the Bhagvad Gita ) and Namdeo. They were followed by Warkari saint-poet Eknath ((1528-1599). Mukteshwar translated Mahabharata into Marathi. Social reformers like saint-poet Tukaram transformed Marathi into a enriched literary language. Ramdas's (1608-1681) Dasbodh' is another well-known work from this period.
In 18th century, some well-known works like Yathartha Dipika (by Vaman Pandit ), Nala Damayanti Swayamvara (by Raghunath Pandit ), Pandava Pratap, Harivijay, Ramvijay (by Shridhar Pandit ) and Mahabharata (by Moropanta ).
Modern Period (after 1800)
The first English Book was translated in Marathi in 1817. The first Marathi newspaper started in 1835. Many books on social reforms were written by Baba Padamji (Yamuna Paryatana, 1857), Mahatma Jyotiba Phule , Lokhitwadi , Justice M G Ranade, Hari Narayan Apte (1864-1919) etc. Lokmanya Tilak's newspaper Kesari , set up in 1880, provided a platform for sharing of literary views.
Sane Guruji (1899-1950) contributed to the children's literature in Marathi. His major works are Shyamchi Aai (Shyam's Mother), Astik (God-believer), Gode Shevat (The Sweet Ending) etc. He translated and simplified many Western Classics and published them in a book of stories titled Gode Goshti (Sweet Stories).
Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar (1889-1976)'s Yayati won him the Jnanpith Award for 1975. He also wrote many other novels, short stories, essays etc. His major works are Done Dhruv (Two Poles), Ulka (Meteorite) and Krounchvadh.
Vijay Tendulkar (born 1928) has contributed greatly to Marathi drama. His famous plays include Gidhade (Vultures), Sakharam Binder, Shantala! Court Chalu Ahe and Ghasiram Kotwal.
Jnanpith Award Winners for Marathi
- See also: Jnanpith Award
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