Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Mari El Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл; Mari: Марий Эл Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republic's name is Respublika Mariy El. The republic is also sometimes called Mariy El in English.
The Republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of the Russian Federation, along Volga River. Swampy Mari Depression is located in the west of the republic. 57% of the republic's territory is covered by forests.
- Area: 23,200 km².
- Highest point: 278 m
- Bolshaya Kokshaga River
- Buy River
- Ilet River
- Iravka River
- Kundysh River
- Lazh River
- Malaya Kokshaga River
- Maly Kundysh River
- Nemda River
- Rutka River
- Urzhumka River
- Vetluga River (navigable)
- Volga River (navigable)
- Yushut River
There are over 200 lakes in Mari El, most of them with the area of less than 1 km² and depth of 1-3 m. Many lakes are located among swamps. Swamps cover large areas (10-70 km², up to 100 km²), and usually freeze in December. Average depth of the swamps is .5-1.5 m (up to 3 m), but they are impassable in fall and spring due to flooding.
Major lakes include:
- Karas Lake
- Kichiyer Lake
- Yalchik Lake
- Cheboksary Reservoir
Climate is moderately continental. Winters are moderately cold, snowy. Summers are warm, often rainy.
- Average January temperature: −13°C
- Average July temperature: +19°C
- Average annual precipitation: 450-500 mm
- Main article: Administrative division of Mari El
The Mari, formerly known as Cheremis, are a Volga-Finnic people speaking two closely related languages, Meadow Mari (марий йылме) and Hill Mari (мары йӹлмы). Meadow Mari is official in the republic, along with Russian, and Hill Mari is considered to be a variant.
Russians account for 47.5% of the population, followed by the Mari (42.9%) and Tatars (6.0%). Other ethnic groups include over 50 nationalities accounting for 3.6% of the population.
- Population: 727,979 (2002)
- Urban: 459,687 (63.1%)
- Rural: 268,292 (36.9%)
- Male: 338,485 (46.5%)
- Female: 389,494 (53.5%)
- Females per 1000 males: 1,151
- Average age: 36.7 years
- Urban: 36.7 years
- Rural: 36.7 years
- Male: 34.0 years
- Female: 39.0 years
- Number of households: 263,382 (with 717,938 people)
- Urban: 173,246 (with 455,006 people)
- Rural: 90,136 (with 262,932 people)
The most developed industries are machine construction, metal working, timber, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Yoshkar-Ola, as well as in the towns of Kozmodemyansk , Volzhsk , and Zvenigovo
In the republic, there is one airport, 15 train stations, 53 bus stations, and a river port in Kozmodemyansk (on Volga River), as well as four other minor river ports.
There are eight museums in Mari El. The largest ones include the National Museum, the Museum of History, and the Republican Museum of Fine Arts in Yoshkar-Ola, and the Museum of Arts and History in Kozmodemyansk.
The most important facilities of higher education include Mari State Technical University , Mari State University , and Mari State Pedagogical Institute ; all located in Yoshkar-Ola.
The most common confessions include Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Old Believers, and Islam. Traditional Mari religion (marla faith—Christianity with elements of Totemism and Shamanism) is also popular.
Mari El is a favourite place of Tatarstan tourists. There is Marii Chodra national park in the valley of Ilet, with various attractions, such as boating, riding, mushrooming, ect. Marii Chodra is also favourite place of Kazan Tolkienist , where they use to play their battles.
- Official website of the Mari El Republic (in Russian)
- Map of Mari El (in English)
- Photos and narratives from Mari El (in English)
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