Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 Zh-1|
|Length||8.91 m||29 ft 2 in|
|Wingspan||7.75 m||25 ft 5 in|
|Height||3.08 m||10 ft 1 in|
|Wing area||12 m²||129 ft²|
|Empty||1,546 kg||3,408 lb|
|Loaded||4,150 kg||9,130 lb|
|Engine||1x Dushkin-Glushko RD-2 M-3V rocket|
|Thrust||14.2 kN||3,190 lbf|
|Maximum speed||1,000 km/h||620 mph|
|Service ceiling||17,000 m||55,750 ft|
|Rate of Climb||4,220 m/min||13,800 ft/min|
|Guns||2x 23 mm Nudelman NS-23 machine guns|
The Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 (Design Ж ("Zh") under Mikoyan-Gurevich's in-house designation sequence, USAF designation "Type 12") was a response to a Soviet Air Force requirement in 1945 for a rocket-powered interceptor aircraft for the point-defence role. In concept and basic configuration, it was strongly reminiscent of the German Messerschmitt Me 263, and is generally regarded as a further development of that design. Only two prototypes were built, both of which were destroyed in crashes, leading to the cancellation of the project.
In the closing stages of World War II, a complete prototype Me 263 (at that time designated Junkers Ju 248), plus technical staff and design documentation had fallen into Soviet hands when the Junkers factory was captured. The I-270 shared the Me 263's simple, tapered fuselage, bubble canopy, undercarriage design, and dual-chambered bipropellant rocket motor. On the other hand, it was considerably larger than the Me 263 and featured straight wings and a T-tail in place of the Me 263's advanced swept wings that did away with the need for a horizontal stabiliser. While there seems little doubt that the Me 263 influenced the design of the I-270, the latter appears far from a direct copy of the former. Some sources suggest that the I-270 may also have been influenced by the Junkers EF 126 rocket fighter project, materials for which were captured by the Soviets at the same time as the Me 263.
The first gliding trials commenced in December 1946, with the first prototype towed into the air behind a Tupolev Tu-2, ballast loaded in place of an engine. The second prototype began powered tests early in 1947, but was damaged beyond repair making a hard landing. Shortly afterwards, the first prototype was also destroyed in a landing accident. By this stage, turbojet technology was at a far more advanced stage than it had been at the outset of the project, and surface-to-air missiles had replaced the need for point-defence interceptors. Under these circumstances, the Air Force decided to cancel the project.
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