Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Military of Ghana
Military of Ghana - consists of the Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, Palace Guard, Civil Defense
Like any army, Ghana's exists to ward off foreign aggression and ensure some form of security for the citizens of Ghana. The Ghanaian military is primarily composed of the army, which controls both the air and naval units. In terms of command, the minister of defense commands generals and other commanders on the field. Military units exist in the capital, Accra and in Ghana's border regions. The Ghanaian army, which has an eastern and a western command, is organized into two brigades, with six infantry battalions; one reconnaissance regiment, with two reconnaissance squadrons; one airborne force, with one paratroop company; one artillery regiment; and one field engineer regiment.
The ordnance is mostly older weapons of British, Brazilian, Swiss, Swedish, Israeli, and Finnish origin. All Ghanaian equipment suffers from extremely poor servicing due to substandard maintenance capabilities. As a result, foreign military advisers or technicians perform all major maintenance tasks.
The Ministry of Defence is located in Accra as is Defence Headquarters. The army numbers some 5,000 personnel and is structured as follows:
- Two BDE HQ in Accra and Kumasi
- 6 Infantry Battalions of the Ghana Regiment
- 2 Airborne companies attached to DHQ
- 1 Battalion of the President's Own Guard Regiment
- 1 Training Battalion
- 1 Staff College
- 2 armoured reconnaissance squadrons of the Reconnaissance Regiment
- 1 Signals Regiment
- 1 Engineer Regiment
- 1 Logistic Group.
The Ghanaian Air Force operates from bases in Accra (headquarters and main transport base), Tamale (combat and training base), Takoradi (training base), and Kumasi (support base). The air force's mission is to perform counterinsurgency operations and to provide logistical support to the army. Performance however has been hindered by a lack of spare parts and by poor maintenance capabilities.
Ghana's navy provides coastal defense, protection of fisheries, and security on Lake Volta. In 1994 the navy was organized into an eastern command, with headquarters at Tema, and a western command, with headquarters at Sekondi. Still, the Ghanaian navy continues to experience low readiness rates because of spare parts shortages.
Paramilitary forces deal with preventing and controlling civil disturbances and insurrection. A small, elite Presidential Guard provides security for the president. The Ghanaian government also has created a National Civil Defense Force (also known as the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution), which includes all citizens able to perform military service. According to the country's defense plans, the National Civil Defense Force would be required to guard important installations in times of crisis to relieve pressure on the regular armed forces.
Ghana commits a large proportion of its armed forces to peacekeeping operations, mainly in Africa. Its largest contingents are:
- MONUC (Democratic Republic of Congo) - 464
- UNMIL (Liberia) - 852
- UNAMSIL (Sierra Leone) - 782
- UNIFIL (Lebanon) - 651
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, Palace Guard, Civil Defense
Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,045,355 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,799,292 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 213,237 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $35.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.7% (FY01)
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