Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Moreno Valley, California
|County||Riverside County, California|
133.6 km² (51.6 mi²)
0.9km² (0.4 mi²) 0.67%
|Time zone||Pacific: UTC-8/-7 (DST)|
33°56'35'' N (33.926267)
|City Motto:||"People, Pride, Progress"|
|United States House of Representatives:||Mary Bono|
|California State Senate:||Jim Battin , Jim Brulte|
|California State Assembly:||John Benoit , Russ Bogh , Bob Dutton|
|Riverside County Board of Supervisors:||Marion Ashley|
|City of Moreno Valley Official Website|
Moreno Valley is a city located in Riverside County, California. According to adjusted 2000 census figures, the city has a total population of 155,105. A relatively young city, its rapid growth in the 1980s and the 2000s propelled it to its status as second-largest city in Riverside County by population, and one of the Inland Empire's population centers. Neighboring Riverside, California is the county seat and largest city in the county; the two cities are closely tied, sharing March Air Reserve Base, among other things.
Prehistory to 1800s
Moreno Valley was originally inhabited by Native Americans of the Shoshone tribe. They were hunter-gatherers, and did not appear to have an organized society. The first Europeans to see the area were Spanish scouts sent from Mexico to explore the area. They blazed a number of trails, including the Anza Trail , which cuts through the Edgemont area of present-day Moreno Valley. Little attention, however, was paid to the relatively dry Moreno Valley area.
When California entered the United States as a state in 1850, Americans began to move into the area. The Tuscon -to-San Francisco route of John Butterfield 's Overland Mail Company passed through Moreno Valley. Some farmers began to occupy the area. They relied upon Frank E. Brown 's Bear Valley Land and Water Company to provide them water, which was collected and pumped from Bear Valley in the San Bernardino Mountains to the north. Brown began performing this service in 1883. In 1899, the city of Redlands won a lawsuit in which the city claimed eminent domain over the Bear Valley water; the resulting loss of service forced most of Moreno Valley's inhabitants to move. The valley first acquired its current name, "Moreno Valley," at this time; the name is derived from Frank Brown's name ("moreno" is Spanish for "brown").
The revival of Moreno Valley began in 1918, when the United States Air Force (then the United States Army Air Service) constructed March Field on the outskirts of Riverside as part of its World War I expansion. March Field was initially used to train fighter pilots. Although it was closed in 1922, it was reopened in 1927 and eventually became a full Air Force base. The presence of March caused the unincorporated communities of Sunnymead, Moreno, and Edgemont to develop and grow. In World War II, March again became a training ground for military pilots.
As the exodus to the suburbs began in the post-World War II United States, Moreno Valley was poised to benefit. Its relative proximity to Los Angeles, California and other population centers, along with low prices for land and housing, proved attractive to many. The opening of the Riverside International Raceway (on the site of what is now the Moreno Valley Mall) in 1957 and of Lake Perris in 1973 provided futher incentive. The Moreno Valley area gradually became one of Los Angeles's largest exurbs. It became a bedroom community for places of employment across Southern California, including Los Angeles, Orange, Escondido, San Diego, and San Bernardino. Surprisingly, the city also became diverse. In addition to Whites, many middle-class Hispanics, Latinos, and African Americans settled in the area, fleeing crime and poor economic conditions elsewhere.
Moreno Valley experienced explosive growth in the 1980s; by 1984, the valley's population was 49,702 (contrasted with 18,871 residents in 1970). The state economic boom fueled the construction of new houses and businesses. This growth led to a push for incorporation. Although similar measures had failed in 1968 and 1983, a measure to form the city of Moreno Valley was approved by voters in 1984. The communities of Edgemont, Sunnymead, and Moreno were incorporated on December 3, 1984 to form the common law city of Moreno Valley. The first City Council was also elected in 1984, composed of Bob Lynn , Judith A. Nieburger , Steven Webb , J. David Horspool (first Mayor Pro Tem), and Marshall C. Scott (first Mayor). The City Seal and Motto were adopted the following year.
Bust and Boom
In the 1990s, the robust Moreno Valley economy deteriorated, largely due to the statewide economic downturn. Many people began to leave the city. March was also downsized to its present status as March Air Reserve Base. The surplus land was given to the March Joint Powers Authority , made up of representatives of Riverside County and the cities of Riverside, Moreno Valley, and Perris for development. The dismal economic trend began to reverse in the late part of the decade, however. Companies such as Aurora Modular , U-Haul, and Lowe's moved major operating facilities to the city or neighboring municipalities (although Aurora later filed for bankruptcy).
By the early 2000s, the arrival of so many newcomers to Riverside County and the soaring cost of living in Los Angeles and Orange County combined to make the less-developed southern half of the Inland Empire a very attractive place for industry. However, congestion on the Moreno Valley Freeway (which is the city's main connection to Los Angeles, via the Riverside and Pomona freeways), severe air pollution, and new residents' NIMBYism may represent a significant barrier to Moreno Valley's further growth.
One economic bright spot was DHL's selection of March Air Reserve Base as its new Southern California hub; the airport beat San Bernardino International Airport and Ontario International Airport for the honor. The DHL facility is expected to be running by March 2005, employing 250 workers in its inital stage. Neighboring residents, however, have filed a lawsuit to block construction of the site. Moreno Valley's coming of age can also be seen in the growth of the area around the Moreno Valley Mall and nearby Day Street, which straddles the border between Moreno Valley and Riverside. The area has seen massive construction in recent years, attracting Best Buy, Lowe's, Starbucks, and other stores often seen as prestigious. An Outback Steakhouse and Pat & Oscar's are being built, and rumors of Famous Dave's and Barnes & Noble coming to the area have emerged lately. These establishments are often seen as appealing to the upper-middle class; this appeal may help attract attention and money to the city.
Moreno Valley is located at a geographic crossroads. To the east lie the San Gorgonio Pass and Coachella Valley; to the south are Lake Perris , Perris, the San Jacinto Mountains, and the route to San Diego; to the north are the San Bernardino Valley and San Bernardino Mountains. In the west are neighboring Riverside and Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The heavily-traveled routes of California State Highway 60 (locally called the Moreno Valley Freeway) and Interstate 215 both pass through the city. It lies under approach paths for both Los Angeles International Airport and Ontario International Airport.
One of the most visible geographical features in Moreno Valley, visible from almost anywhere in the city, is Box Springs Mountain . This mountain at the northwest end of the city towers over the city, providing a concrete landmark. The face of the mountain that faces the city has a large "M" constructed upon it. This was built privately at the encouragement of the City Council, which argued it would foster unity. The letter is located on public land and is maintained entirely by charity. Several Eagle Scout projects have been dedicated to maintaining the letter.
As of the census2 of 2000 (adjusted), there are 155,105 people, 39,225 households, and 33,380 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,073.1/km² (2,779.3/mi²). There are 41,431 housing units at an average density of 312.3/km² (808.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 46.84% White, 19.88% African American, 0.94% Native American, 5.92% Asian, 0.51% Pacific Islander, 20.08% from other races, and 5.83% from two or more races. 38.41% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 39,225 households out of which 54.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.6% are married couples living together, 17.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 14.9% are non-families. 11.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 3.1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.61 and the average family size is 3.86.
In the city the population is spread out with 36.8% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 5.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 27 years. For every 100 females there are 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $47,387, and the median income for a family is $48,965. Males have a median income of $38,620 versus $26,492 for females. The per capita income for the city is $14,983. 14.2% of the population and 11.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 18.1% of those under the age of 18 and 9.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The city has an interesting geographical distribution of demographics. The north of the city (the former community of Moreno) is mostly White and upper-middle class . The most expensive homes are located in this area, including Sunnymead Ranch, which is an extensive planned community, and extravagant homes in the hills that separate Moreno Valley and the San Bernardino area. The north of the city is also mostly residental. As one moves south, the income levels gradually drop, and Hispanics, Latinos, and African-Americans make up a larger percentage of the population. This trend culminates in Edgemont, which is generally lower class and industrial.
Moreno Valley is an incorporated common law city. It is governed by a council-manager government. The city is divided into five districts, each of which elect a representative. The council chooses two of its own members to serve as Mayor and Mayor Pro Tem. The council also selects the city manager. The current City Council consists of:
- District 1: Charles R. White
- District 2: Richard A. Stewart
- District 3: Frank West
- District 4: Bonnie Flickinger
- District 5: William H. Batey II
Richard A. Stewart is the current Mayor, and Bonnie Flickinger is the current Mayor Pro Tem. The current City Manager is Gene Rogers .
Primary and secondary
Moreno Valley's primary and secondary education needs are fulfilled by the Moreno Valley Unified School District and the Val Verde Unified School District . The former serves approximately 35,000 students, the bulk of the city's children, and has 35 schools, including four high schools: Canyon Springs, Moreno Valley, Valley View, and Vista del Lago. Val Verde District serves part of southern and eastern Moreno Valley, in addition to parts of Perris, Mead Valley , and unincorporated areas. It serves about 13,000 students and maintains 12 schools; one of its high schools, Rancho Verde, is located in Moreno Valley. Some private schools exist, including the local Calvary Chapel Academy.
One of the three campuses of Riverside Community College (RCC) is located in the city, which serves 6,500 students. This campus is slated to become an independent community college at some point in the future, along with its sister satellite campus in Norco. No other higher education facilities are located in the city, although the RCC main campus and University of California, Riverside are located in neighboring Riverside. California State University, San Bernardino is another popular school for city high school graduates.
- Demographics. Retrieved December 12, 2004.
- The History of Moreno Valley. Retrieved December 12, 2004.
- Trone, Kimberly (Dec. 11, 2004). DHL Picks March. The Press-Enterprise, p. A1.
- Wells, Devona (Dec. 11, 2004). Moreno Valley beefs up its restaurant offerings. The Press-Enterprise, p. E1.
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details