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Music of Mesopotamia
This article treats the music of Ancient Mesopotamia (see music and Ancient Mesopotamia). Ancient Mesopotamian culture was influenced by the Sumerians, about whom far less is known. The cultures from Ancient Mesopotamia were among the first that developed writing, the first known Sumerian writing dating from 4000 BCE.
Melodicically Ancient Mesopotamian music was organized, similarly to contemporary Arab and Indian music, with complex modes and modal types, such as in a current raga or maqamat, and including pentatonic, diatonic, and chromatic scales. Ancient Mesopotamian harmony was most likely limited to fourth and fifth chords (dyads) as in African and archaic Italian folk music, and the systematic use of drones which they Ancient Mesopotamias originated. Rhythmically the music was intricate and complex, as witnessed by the rhythmic complexity of Mesopotamian influenced Islamic, Arab, Indian, and medieval European musics, all of which share 2 against 3 (as hemiola or cross-rhythm). (ibid, p.11)
Instruments which originated in Ancient Mesopotamia include the bow harp , lyre or lute, and the reed pipe. These instruments spread north into Egypt, then Greece, through Greece to Rome, and through Rome to Europe. From Egypt they spread south and westward into black Africa. Contemporary East African lyres and West African lutes preserve many features of Mesopotamian instruments. (van der Merwe 1989, p.10)
The vocal tone or timbre was probably similar to the pungently nasal sound of the narrow-bor reed pipes, and most likely shared the contemporary "typically" Asian vocal quality and techniques, including little dynamic changes and more graces, shakes, mordents, glides, and microtonal inflections. Singers probably expressed intense and withdrawn emotion, as if listening to onself, as shown by the practice of cupping a hand to the ear (as is still current in many Arab and folk musics). (ibid, p.11)
Ea, ruler of the deep, was the patron god of music. The sound quality of the drum (Babylonian: balag), made from a bull hide, and pipe , made from reed, where also metaphorically compared to their materials stengths, the bull being strong and the reed weak. Instruments were often decorated with images of Ea or bulls, while Ea wrote his name with the sign for a drum, it serving as a personification of his essense. Ramman, god of thunder and winds, was associated with the singing voice and the reed-pipe (hallhallatu). One of the names of Ishtar translates as "the soft reed-pipe". Her partner Tammuz was the "god of the tender voice". (Wellesz 1957, p.230-231)
Temples, which existed in all large cities employed liturgists, most importantly the precentor (Sumerian: gala, Akkadian: kalu) who intoned the cantillation, the chief precentor (Sumerian: galamah, Akkadian: kalamahhu) being the highest position in the city. Many where part time employees and all where unconsecrated, though they where well educated, especially in cantillation (kalutu), formed guilds, and were housed in the temple college . They also employed a choir of temple musicians (Sumerian: nar, Akkadian: naru), who where both instrumentalists and vocalists who started providing the response during liturgy and eventually became more and more associated with private penitential events, including funerals and magic, and eventually dissociated from sacred public service and seen in secular culture. Another sacred musical occupation was called ilukaka (Sumerian, Akkadian: zammeru), which probably meant generic musician or instrumentalist, though the zammeru also sang in services. (ibid, p.231-232)
- van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0193161214.
- Wellesz, Egon, ed. (1957) New Oxford History of Music Volume I: Ancient and Oriental Music. Oxford University Press.
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