Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Abbreviation: 宁 (pinyin: Níng)|
|Origin of Name|| 南 nán - South|
京 jīng - Capital
Put together - Southern Capital
|Administration Type||Sub-provincial city|
|CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary||Luo Zhijun|
|Area||6421 km² (xth)|
| Population (200? ) |
| 5,410,000 (1st ) |
965.58/km² (xth )
| GDP (200? )|
- per capita
| 141.06 billion ¥ (xth ) |
27128 ¥ (xth )
|City tree|| Deodar Cedar|
|City flower|| Apricot|
|Postal Code||210000 - 211300|
|License Plate Prefix||苏A|
Nanjing (; Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. It is the capital city of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China (and is the official capital of Republic of China in accordance with the current Constitutional Law of the ROC, although outside its actual jurisdiction). It is situated in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River at .
Nanjing is called "The Capital of Education, Science, Culture, Art and Tourism". It was called “The Capital of Heaven”. Nanjing has been well known as the cultural and educational center in southern China for more than 1700 years. It is one of the four ancient capitals of China and was the capital for ten dynasties and kingdoms. It has been the political and economic center for southeastern china for more than a thousand years. Nanjing is also the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River basin area. Nanjing is a popular tourist city, with large number of heritage tourist sites.
Nanjing was the political and economic centre for southeastern China for more than a thousand years. Now it is the second largest city in Yangtze River delta region after Shanghai. Its GDP per capita was ¥27128 (ca. US$3280) in 2003, ranked No.31 among 659 Chinese cities.
Dating back to 495 BC, the State of Wu established Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area. The State of Yue conquered Wu and refounded the site as Yuecheng 越城 in 473 BC. The State of Chu established Jīnlíng (金陵) in this area in 333 BC. Since then the city has experienced numerous destructions and reconstructions.
At least three subsequent cities were constructed: Jiànkāng (建康) of AD 229 (it met total annihilation in AD 589 and became farmland thereafter), a later Jinling built in 914, and as the early capital of the Ming Dynasty Nánjīng was constructed in 1366. The removal of the capital in 1421 to Peking, the better to face the Manchu threat, signals for Western economic historians a major shift in the economy of China, turning away for good from an economy based on ease of access to the sea.
During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Liangjiang Viceroy. Nanjing was the capital of the Taiping Kingdom in the mid-19th century, being renamed Tianjing (lit. Heaven's Capital). Qing general Zeng Guofan retook the city for the Qing.
After a successful rebellion against the imperial government, Sun Yat-sen founded the Republic of China and made Nanjing its captital; the capital later moved to Beijing after Yuan Shi-kai took power. After the Northern Expedition in 1928, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-Shek again established Nanjing as the capital of China in opposition to a government in Beijing led by northern warlords, and an alternate government in Wuhan led by Wang Jingwei. After the completion of the Northern Expedition in 1931, Chiang's government became the only recognized Chinese government.
In 1937, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city fell to the Japanese, who massacred prisoners-of-war, refugees and civilians following the Battle of Nanjing in the infamous Nanjing Massacre. Chiang moved his government to Chongqing, and the Japanese established a puppet government in Nanjing under Wang Jingwei. After the end of World War II, Nanjing was re-established as the capital of the Republic of China. In 1949, after the defeat of Chiang's forces on the Mainland, the capital of the People's Republic of China was established in Beijing. The Republic of China government on Taiwan continues to recognize Nanjing as its "official" capital, while Taipei is deemed as only "temporary."
Nanjing is the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. Five means of transportation such as railway, waterway, aviation constitute a three-dimensional and mass transport volume traffic network all-round.
Nanjing Port is a port for foreign trade leading to the Pacific ocean and western countries. The port area is 98 kilometres in full length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000.
Within Nanjing, there are over 60 highway long-distance passenger traffic lines leading to all parts of the province; the Tianjin-Pukou , Shanghai-Nanjing and Nanjing-Wuhu Trunk Railways meet in Nanjing which has become an important hub of railways linking north, east and central China. The main railway
After extension, the Nanjing Lukou International Airport has more than 20 air lines leading to all major cities in the country. Airlines such as Air China and Southern China serve the city. With the start of construction of the new airport, Nanjing will have a modernized airport.
There is an intricate system of buses for transporation inside the city. Taxis are also in no shortage.
Being one of six major telecommunication hubs in the country, Nanjing has a telecommunication network which is composed of multiple modes and linking with all parts of the country and all countries in the world.
Nanjing is a popular tourist city, with probably the largest number of heritage tourist sites in China. The lakes, rivers, mountains, forests, parks, squares, streets and buildings are integated to be a beautiful city.
Famous tourist attractions include:
- Purple Mountain
- Purple Mountain Observatory
- Ming Xiaoling: Mausoleum of the founder of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋), the only Ming emperor to be buried at Nanjing. His successors are buried at Beijing.
- Zhongshan Ling: Dr Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum - the greatest modern mausoleum in China.
- Soul Valley Temple
- Xuanwu Hu : the largest ancient imperial garden lake in China.
- The Porcelain Pagoda of Nanjing: one of the Seven Wonders of the World in the Middle Ages .
- Nanjing Ming City Walls : the world's longest surviving ancient city walls.
- Chinese Gate: Zhonghua Gate, or Zhonghuamen in Chinese, the greatest ancient city gate in China and the city gate with the most complex structure in the world.
- Fuzi Miao (Temple of Confucius): the greatest traditional Chinese commercial center.
- Xinjiekou Commercial Area: often referred to as the geographical centre of Nanjing, called "The first Chinese commercial Circle".
- Chaotian Gong (Worshipping Heaven Palace): the biggest and best preserved ancient building complex in Southern China.
- Jimingsi Temple : in ancient time it's called The First Temple of Southern Dynasties (Southern China).
- Rain Flower Pebbles
- Jiangan Gongyuan : the symbol of culture of Jiangnan area(Southeastern part of China south of the Yangtze River). More than half of the nation's Champion of scholars in Qing dynasty won imperial examination here.
- Zhanyuan Garden : one of the five most famous gardens in Jiangnan area.
- Xuyuan Garden : one of the five most famous gardens in Jiangnan.
- Mochou Lake : in ancient time it's called the First Lake of Jiangnan Area.
- Yuejiang Tower : a famous river-viewing tower that was initially proposed by Zhu Yuanzhang the first emperor of Ming dynasty and for six hundred years existed only on paper; it was constructed in actuality in modern times.
- Presidential Palace of the Republic of China
- The Museum of Chinese Modern History
- Stone City
- Qinhuaihe River
- Nanjing Museum
- Ming-Dynasty Imperial Palace Remains
- Jiangsu Nanjing TV Tower
Culture and Art
- Nanjing Library : former National Central Library and Library of Chinese National Culture, the first public library in China and one of the biggest libraries in China.
- Nanjing Museum: former National Central Museum, the first modern museum in China and one of the greatest museums in China and the world.
Nanjing has been the educational center in southern China for more than 1700 years. Presently, it boasts with some of the most prominent educational institutions in the region, which are listed as follows；
- Nanjing University (南京大学) (originated in 258, modern incarnation founded 1902)
- Southeast University (东南大学)
- HoHai University (河海大学)
- Nanjing Agricultural University (南京农业大学)
- China Pharmaceutical University (中国药科大学)
- Nanjing University of Science & Technology (南京理工大学)
- Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (南京航空航天大学)
- Nanjing University of Technology (南京工业大学)
- Nanjing Forestry University (南京林业大学)
- Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (南京中医药大学)
- Nanjing Normal University (南京师范大学)
- Nanjing University of Finance & Economics (南京财经大学)
- Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (南京邮电学院)
- Nanjing Institute of Meteorology (南京气象学院)
- Nanjing Institute of Physical Education (南京体育学院)
- Nanjing Arts Institute (南京艺术学院)
- Nanjing Audit University (南京审计学院)
- Nanjing Xiaozhuang College (南京晓庄学院)
- Jinling Institute of Technology (金陵科技学院)
- Sanjiang University (三江学院)
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Nanjing City(南京城) means the area surrounded by city wall, i.e., the ancient Nanjing city.
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