Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Nitra (in Latin: comitatus Nitriensis, in Hungarian Nyitr(i)a (vár)megye, in Slovak: Nitriansky komitát / Nitrianska stolica / Nitrianska župa, in German Neutraer Gespanschaft/Komitat Neutra) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is presently in western Slovakia.
Nitra county shared borders with the Austrian land Moravia and the Hungarian counties Trencsén (Trenčín), Turóc (Turiec), Bars (Tekov), Komárom and Pozsony (Bratislava). In its final phase, it was a strip of land between the Morava river in the north and the town of Nové Zámky in the south, plus an outlier around the town of Prievidza. The river Váh flowed through the county. Its area was 5519 km² around 1910.
The capital of the county was the Nitra Castle and since the late Middle Ages the town of Nitra.
A kind of predecessor of the Nitra county existed as early as in the 9th century at the time of Great Moravia. Around 1000, the Nitra county arose as one of the first comitatus of the Kingdom of Hungary.
In 1918 (confirmed by the Treaty of Trianon 1920), Nitra county became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia. Nitra county (Nitrianska župa) continued to exist till 1927, but it had completely different powers etc. and somewhat modified borders.
During World War II, when Czechoslovakia was split temporarily, the southern part was occupied by Hungary under the First Vienna Award. This was merged with the south-eastern part of former Bratislava county to form Nyitra-Pozsony county, with capital Nové Zámky (Hungarian: Érsekújvár). The northern part, which was in newly created Slovakia, formed the Nitra county (Nitrianska župa) in 1940.
After World War II Nitra county was completely in Czechoslovakia again. In 1993, Czechoslovakia was split and Nitra became part of Slovakia. The name "Nitra county" is also used erroneously to designate the Nitra region (Nitriansky kraj) which was created in 1948.
In the early 20th century, the districts and their capitals were:
- Nitra (Hungarian: Nyitra)
- Šaľa (Hungarian: Vágsellye), capital Trnovec nad Váhom (Hungarian: Tornóc)
- Nové Mesto nad Váhom (Hungarian: Vágújhely)
- Hlohovec (Hungarian: Galgóc)
- Topoľčany (Hungarian: Nagytapolcsány)
- Prievidza (Hungarian: Privigye)
- Nové Zámky (Hungarian: Érsekújvár), capital Šurany (Hungarian: Nagysurány)
- Myjava (Hungarian: Miava)
- Senica (Hungarian: Szenic)
- Skalica (Hungarian: Szakolca), capital Holíč (Hungarian: Holics)
- Piešťany (Hungarian: Pöstyen)
- Žabokreky nad Nitrou (Hungarian: Nyitrazsámbokrét)
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