Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The term normal has many meanings, as listed below.
In behavior, normal means not deviating very much from the average; "not normal" is often used in a negative sense (improper, sick, etc.). Abnormality varies greatly in how pleasant or unpleasant this is for other people; somebody may half-jokingly be called "pleasantly disturbed". Examples of "normality" are mainstream, temperance, vanilla sex, equilibrium, stability, reality, peace, health, middle way; contrast these with eccentricity, perversion, paraphilia, intersexual, disease, disability, mental illness, addiction, war, crime, fantasy, dream, hallucination, illusion.
Some terms could fit in both lists, for example boredom: too much "normality" can be boring, but boredom is a kind of suffering, which can be considered "not normal".
- Quote: It is dangerous to be right on a subject on which the established authorities are wrong. - Voltaire. (It is dangerous not to be "normal" even if you are right).
Sciences and education
- In computer graphics, more exactly, in raytracing, a surface normal determines how light is reflected from an object.
- In geometry and physics: a normal is a line perpendicular to a surface, see surface normal. The adjective normal is synonymous with "perpendicular".
- In statistics, a normal variable is a random variable that follows the normal distribution.
- In abstract algebra (in particular, group theory): a normal subgroup is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation.
- In linear algebra: a normal matrix is a matrix which commutes with its conjugate transpose.
- In functional analysis: a normal operator is a linear operator on a Hilbert space that commutes with its adjoint.
- In abstract algebra: a normal extension is a field extension in which certain polynomials can be completely factored into linear polynomials.
- In topology: a normal space is a topological space in which disjoint closed sets can be separated by disjoint neighborhoods.
- In complex analysis, a normal family is a pre-compact family of holomorphic functions.
- In mathematical analysis: a normal number is a number whose digit sequence is random.
- In set theory: a normal function is a continuous strictly increasing function from ordinals to ordinals.
- In category theory: a normal morphism is a morphism that arises as the kernel or cokernel of some other morphisms.
Normal is the name of several places in the United States:
- In the Pokémon video game franchise, Normal-type Pokémon are Pokémon that do not have any outstanding elemental characteristics, such as not being able to breathe fire or not being a ghost.
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