Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Nuevo León (Spanish for "New León", after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. It borders the Mexican states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León also shares a 15 km stretch of borderline with Texas, (USA).
It was originally founded by Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate Nuevo Leon, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of Portuguese and Spanish settlers, requested permision from the Spanish King to attempt to repopulate the area.
The capital city of Nuevo León is Monterrey.
One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, has the highest income per capita in Latin America and Monterrey, the capital, is one of the largest cities in the nation and home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (world's 4th largest cement company), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), Grupo Alfa (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa), Vitro (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).
See main article Politics and government of Nuevo León.
Official name: Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León (Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León).
Executive: In the 6 July 2003 gubernatorial election, Alianza Ciudadana – an electoral alliance between the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Green Ecological Party of Mexico (PVEM) – regained control of the state from President Fox's party National Action Party (PAN). The new governor, José Natividad González Parás of the PRI, was sworn in on 4 October 2003 for a period of six years.
Cabinet: Chosen directly by the Governor except for the General Comptroller and the State General Attorney, which are elected by Congress from a list of names provided by the Governor.
Legislative: The State has a unicameral chamber. The LXX Congress of Nuevo León is composed of 42 deputies, 26 of them chosen by first-past-the-post electoral districts and 16 of them by proportional representation on a party-list basis. The parties represented are the PRI with twenty-four (20 fpp and 4 pr), the PAN with eleven (6 & 5), the Partido del Trabajo (PT) with three (0 & 3), the PVEM with two (0 & 2), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) with one (0 & 1), and one independent (who was a member of Convergencia at the time of the election). The president of the permanent commission is César Santos Cantú of the PRI.
Judiciary: Judicial power rests in the Superior Court of Justice of the State of Nuevo León, led by Minister Genaro Muñoz Muñoz .
Political parties: Official recognition is given by the State Electoral Commission to those parties getting more than 1.5% of the votes in the last election (Art.40 of the State Electoral Law), which are the ones represented in Congress.
- Human Development Report for Mexico 2002
- Historia de Nuevo León by Israel Cavazos (in Spanish)
- Encliclopedia de los Municipios de México (in Spanish)
- Comisión Estatal Electoral de Nuevo León (in Spanish)
- Ley Estatal Electoral de Nuevo León, 1996 (in Spanish)
- Towns, cities, and postal codes in Nuevo León (in Spanish)
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