Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This article is about the city in Germany. See also Nuremberg, Pennsylvania, USA.
Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. It is situated on the Pegnitz river and the (Rhine-)Main-Danube Canal. Population (as of 07/2004): 494,933.
From 1050 to 1571, the city was a regular stop on the progression of the Holy Roman Emperor, particularly because Reichstage (Imperial Diets) and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the empire. In 1219 Nuremberg became an Imperial Free City under Emperor Frederick II. Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe.
In 14 April 1561, a large number of 'plates', 'blood-coloured crosses', and 'two great tubes' stages an aerial dog-fight, enthralling and frightening the whole population of Nuremberg.
The cultural flowering of Nuremberg in the 15th and 16th centuries made it the center of the German Renaissance.
In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Reformation, and in 1532, the religious Peace of Nuremberg , by which the Lutherans gained important concessions, was signed there. During the Thirty Years War, in 1632, Gustavus II was besieged in Nuremberg by Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial center. In 1806, Nuremberg passed to Bavaria. The first German railway, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835.
Because of its relevance to the Holy Roman Empire, in line with the connotations raised by the term Third Reich, the Nazis chose the city as the site of their large NSDAP party conventions (as seen in Triumph of the Will). A number of premises were specially constructed for these assemblies, as well as other buildings, some of which were not finished. To this date, many examples of Nazi architecture can be seen in the city, making it an interesting visit for those interested in the History of Germany overall.
After Adolf Hitler came to power, Nuremberg was made a national shrine by the National Socialists, who held their annual party congresses nearby from 1933 through 1938. The city was the home of the Nazi leader Julius Streicher and became a center of anti-Semitic propaganda. Until 1945, Nuremberg was the site of roughly half the total German production of airplane, submarine, and tank engines; as a consequence, the city was heavily bombed by the British and Americans during World War II and was largely destroyed. Despite this, the city was rebuilt after the war and was restored as closely to its pre-war appearance as possible, down to the replication of many of its medieval buildings.
A notable industrial center, Nuremberg is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (lebkuchen) products and handmade toys. The first pocket watches, the Nürnberg eggs, were made here in the 16th century. Its manufactures include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, chemicals, textiles, and printed materials.
Nuremberg was an early center of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention.
The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, mapped the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johann Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche 'Weltkarte', the first perspective reproduction of the terrestrial globe. Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus' work was published in Nuremberg in 1543.
Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by mapmaking. Two of these were navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe, and Hartmann Schedel, who wrote his World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik) in the local Franconian dialect.
Worldwide, Nuremberg is twinned with the following cities:
- Glasgow, Scotland
- San Carlos , Nicaragua
- Skopje, Macedonia
- Cracow, Poland
- Nice, France
- Venice, Italy
- Atlanta, USA
- Kavala, Greece
- Shenzhen, China
- Antalya, Turkey
- Hadera, Israel
- Prague, Czech Republic
- Kharkov, Ukraine
Miscellaneous items related to Nuremberg
- Nürnberger Bratwürste
- Lebkuchen (gingerbread, specialty of Nuremberg)
- Leni Riefenstahl
- Toy Museum ("Spielzeugmuseum")
- (History of the City of Nuremberg, in German)
- Labour Exchange Headquarters ("Arbeitsamt", now "Agentur für Arbeit")
- Norisring Racetrack, where Pedro Rodriguez died in 1971
- http://www.nuremberg.de/ - English website of the city
- http://germany.archiseek.com/bavaria/nuremberg/index.html - Architecture of Nuremberg
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