Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Nyíregyháza (IPA: /ɲireɟhazɒ/; approximate pronunciation: "nyee-redy-haa-zah") is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 117.000 it counts as a large city and is one of the leading cities of Northern Hungary.
Nyíregyháza was first mentioned in 1209, although it was called only Nyír (means "birch"). A source from 1326 mentions that the town has a church, hence the 2nd part of the name, "egyház" (meaning "church"). In the middle of the 15th century the town had about 400 inhabitants. In the 16th century, during the Turkish occupation of Hungary Nyíregyháza became deserted, and became inhabited only in the 1630s – 1640s.
After the Revolution led by Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the population of the town grew. Most of the new immigrants were from Slovakia. In 1786 Nyíregyháza was granted the right to hold four market days a year, by this time the town was the biggest town of the county with 7,500 inhabitants. In the early 19th century Nyíregyháza was wealthy enough to become free from her feudal lords, the families Dessewffy and Károlyi. During these prosperous years the town got a new town hall, a hospital, several schools and a restaurant by the nearby lake Sóstó ("salty lake").
The inhabitants of the town took an active part in the revolution and war in 1848-49, and after the suppression of the revolution several citizens were imprisoned, among them the mayor, Marton Hatzel.
In the second half of the 19th century Nyíregyháza got more and more urbanized and in 1876 the town became the county capital of Szabolcs county (which is today part of the larger county Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg). In 1858 the railway line reached Nyíregyháza, several new bulidings were built, including a telegraph office, the main post office and the theater. In 1911 the construction of tramways was finished.
After the many trials and tribulations of World War I, Nyíregyháza was under Romanian occupation for ten months. Between the two world wars the city celebrated the 100th anniversary of becoming free from her feudal landowners.
From the 1960s the city is growing and developing fast. Today, Nyíregyháza is one of the most prosperous cities of Hungary, being both an educational centre and a popular tourist destination.
The thermal lake of Sóstó has been a tourist attraction for centuries. The lake is very warm, around 26şC, and is surrounded by a park of 2000 m2. Sóstó is easily accessible from Nyíregyháza by the local bus 8.
Nyíregyháza also has several museums and exhibitions, showing the city's rich cultural heritage.
- Collection of Greek Catholic Religious Arts – icons and liturgical objects from the 17th–18th centuries
- Collection of the International Medallion Art and Small Sculpture Creative Community of Nyíregyháza-Sóstó – periodic exhibitions of works of contemporary artists
- András Jósa Museum with archeological findings from all ages of the city's history, including a numismatic collection from the Bronze Age
- Village Museum of Sóstó – a glimpse at village life in the 19th century
The city has beautiful churches (Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran churches and a synagogue).
Nyíregyháza is twinned with :
- St Albans (United Kingdom),
- Rzeszów (Poland),
- Iserlohn (Germany),
- Kajaani (Finland),
- Uzhhorod (Ukraine),
- Satu Mare (Romania),
- Prešov (Slovakia),
- Qiryat Motzkin (Israel).
- Official site in English
- Link collection
- Sóstó Thermal Bath (only in Hungarian)
- A portal site (Hungarian only)
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details