Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The October Manifesto was issued by Emperor Nicholas II of Russia under the influence of Count Sergei Witte as a response to the Russian Revolution of 1905. The Manifesto pledged to grant certain concessions to the Russian people, including freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of association; a bicameral system of government; broad participation in the Duma; and a decree that no law should come into force without the consent of the state Duma. The manifesto was a precursor of the first ever Russian Constitution.
In reality, the Manifesto (and the Constitution) did not result in a significant increase in freedom or government representation for the average Russian. The Tsar continued to exercise veto power over the Duma, and he dissolved and reformed it several times.
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