Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
In geology, orogeny is the process of mountain building. An orogenic belt, therefore, is a geologic structure associated with continental collisions and mountain building. Generally orogenic belts consist of long parallel strips of rock exhibiting similar characteristics along the length of the belt. The details of the specific belt will vary with what collided and the details of the collision. Frequently, many of the rock formations involved in the collision (Orogeny) will be severely deformed and metamorphosed. During this process, deeply buried rocks may be pushed to the surface. Sea bottom and near shore material may be overthrust into the orogeny covering some or all of the active area. Someplace under the orogenic belt will be a subduction zone that promoted the collision by consuming crust and dragging the material on one side of the collision into contact with that on the other. The subduction zone may have volcanoes or lava flows associated with it.
List of orogenies
North American orogenies
- Acadian orogeny
- Antler orogeny
- Appalachian orogeny
- Grenville orogeny
- Laramide orogeny
- Rocky Mountains, western North America, 40-70 Myr ago.
- Nevadan orogeny
- developed along western North America during the Jurassic Period.
- Ouachita orogeny
- Penokean orogeny
- Taconic orogeny
- NE U.S. and Canada during the Ordovician Period.
- Alpine orogeny
- Caledonian orogeny
- Carpathean orogeny
- Hellenic orogeny
- Ural orogeny
- Variscan orogeny
- The Aravalli-Delhi Orogen (precambrian)
- The Cimmerian and Cathayasian orogenies
- Himalayan orogeny
South American orogenies
- Andean orogeny
- Andes Mountains, 0-200 Myr ago.
- Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Myr ago.)
- Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Myr ago.)
- Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Myr ago.)
- Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Myr ago.)
- Early Ruker orogeny (2000 - 1700 Myr ago.)
- Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Myr ago.)
- Beardmore orogeny (633 - 620 Myr ago.)
- Ross Orogeny (~ 500 Myr ago.)
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