Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Otto von Kotzebue
The second son of August von Kotzebue, he was born at Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia). After attending the St Petersburg school of cadets, he accompanied Krusenstern on his voyage of 1803-1806. On promotion to lieutenant, Kotzebue was placed in command of an expedition, fitted out at the expense of the imperial chancellor, Count Romanzoff , in the brig Rurick. In this vessel, with only twenty-seven men, including the naturalists Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz and Adelbert von Chamisso, Kotzebue set out on July 30 1815 to find a passage across the Arctic Ocean and explore the less-known parts of Oceania.
Proceeding via Cape Horn, he discovered the Romanzov Islands , Rurik Islands and Krusenstern Islands, then made for Kamchatka, and in the middle of July proceeded northward, coasting along the north-west coast of North America, and discovering and naming Kotzebue Sound or Gulf and Krusenstern Cape . Returning by the coast of Asia, he again sailed to the south, sojourned for three weeks at the Sandwich Islands, and on January 1 1817 discovered New Year Island. After further cruising in the Pacific Ocean, he again proceeded north, but severe illness compelled him to return to Europe, and he reached the Neva on August 3 1818, bringing home a large collection of previously unknown plants and much new ethnological information.
In 1823 Kotzebue, now a captain, was entrusted with the command of an expedition in two ships of war, the main object of which was to take reinforcements to Kamchatka. There was, however, a staff of scientists on board, who collected much valuable information and material in geography, ethnography and natural history. The expedition, proceeding by Cape Horn, visited the Radak and Society Islands, and reached Petropavlovsk in July 1824. Many positions along the coast were rectified, the Navigator islands visited, and several discoveries made. The expedition returned by the Marianna, Philippines, New Caledonia and the Hawaiian Islands, reaching Kronstadt on July 10 1826. There are English translations of both Kotzebue's narratives: A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering’s Straits for the Purpose of exploring a North-East Passage, undertaken in the Years 1815-1818 (3 vols. 1821), and A New Voyage Round the World in the Years 1823-1826 (1830).
Three years after his return from his second voyage, Kotzebue died at Reval.
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