Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Packaging and labelling
Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. Labelling refers to any written or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate label.
The purpose of packaging and labels
Packaging and labeling have five objectives:
- Physical protection of the object - The objects enclosed in the package can be protected from damage caused by physical force, rain, heat, sunlight, cold, pressure, airborne contamination, and automated handling devices.
- Agglomeration - Small objects are typically grouped together in one one package for reasons of efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000 single pencils. Alternatively, bulk commodities (such as salt) can de divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households.
- Information transmission - Information on how to use, transport, or dispose of the product is often contained on the package or label. An example is pharmaceutical products, where some types of information are required by governments.
- Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product.
- Reducing theft - Some packages are made larger than they need to be so as to make theft more difficult. An example is software packages that typically contain only a single disc even though they are large enough to contain dozens of discs.
Commonly used packaging materials include:
The type of material chosen depends on: the sensitivity of the product; the types of damage that are likely; the value of the product; the size of the product; the weight of the product; the length of time the product will be packaged; and the method of shipping being used.
The above materials are fashioned into different types of packages and containers such as:
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