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The Pahari languages, also known as Northern Zone languages, are a group of related Indo-Aryan languages or dialects spoken in the lower ranges of the Himalayas from Nepal in the east to the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh in the west. These languages fall into three groups: an eastern, consisting of the various dialects of Nepali, also known as Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, or Parbatiya; a central, spoken in Uttaranchal state, in Kumaon and Garhwal; and a western, spoken in Himachal Pradesh. In Nepal, Nepali is the language only of the lowland Indo-Aryan population, the mother tongue of most of the inhabitants being some form or other of Tibeto-Burman. As may be expected, Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari through its being affected, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms. The speakers of Central and Western Pahari have not been brought into close association with Tibeto-Burmans, and their language is therefore more purely Indo-Aryan.
Khaskura, as its speakers themselves call it, passes under various names. English speakers generally call it Nepali or Nepalese (i.e. the language of Nepal). Khaskura is also called Gorkhali or Gurkhali, the language of the Gurkhas, and Parbatiya, the language of the mountains. Palpa, closely related to Khaskura, is deemed by some authorities to be a separate language.
Western Pahari includes a great number of languages or dialects, including Bhadrawahi, Bhattiyali, Bilaspuri, Chambeali, Churahi, Dogri-Kangri, Gaddi, Hinduri, Jaunsari, Harijan Kinnauri, Mandeali, Kullu Pahari, Mahasu Pahari, Pahari-Potwari, Pangwali, and Sirmauri.
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