Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Demographics of Pakistan
The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. In the northern half, most of the population lives about an arc formed by the cities of Faisalabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, and Peshawar.
Population and Growth
- Population: Over 154 million in 2004
- Growth rate: 1.96% (2004 est.)
- Birth rate: 32.11 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)
- Death rate: 9.51 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)
- Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
- 0-14 years: 41%(male 29,880,574; female 28,145,247)
- 15-64 years: 55% (male 39,751,222; female 37,981,378)
- 65 years and over: 4% (male 2,856,305; female 2,939,049) (2000 est.)
- Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
- 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
- total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
Mortality and Life Expectancy
- Infant mortality rate: 82.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)
- Life expectancy at birth:
- total population: 61.06 years
- male: 60.27 years
- female: 61.91 years (2000 est.)
- Total fertility rate: 4.56 children born/woman (2000 est.)
- Fertility decline rate: 1.8 children per woman per decade (2nd fastest in world, Feeney and Alam, 2003)
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write.
- In total population: 50% (provisional 2004 estimate)
Nationality and Ethnicity
- Noun: Pakistani(s)
- Adjective: Pakistani
Pakistan's ethnic diversity is obvious and yet accurate numbers have been elusive. Rough estimates vary, but it has been largely agreed that the Punjabis and Pashtuns (also known as Pukhtuns and referred to as Pathans by those of the east) are the two largest groups. The main ethnic groups include the following: the Punjabi, Pashtun, Sindhi, Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants), Seraiki, Brahui, Kashmiri, and the various peoples of the Northern Areas. In addition, an unknown number of Afghan refugees continue to reside within the country.
As a first language, Pakistanis speak: Punjabi 48%, Pashtu 15%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and others 1%.
The majority of Pakistanis can speak or understand two or more languages.
The official language of Pakistan is English. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca, although it is spoken as a first language by only 8% of the population. 48% speak Punjabi as a first language, 15% Pushto, and 29% other languages such as (Sindhi, Seraiki , Baloch, Hindko and Brahui.)
English is the official language, being widely used within the government, by the civil service and the officer ranks of the military. Pakistan's Constitution and laws are written in English. Many schools, and nearly all colleges and universities, use English as the medium of instruction.
Urdu is the national language, the lingua franca of the people. It is widely used, both formally and informally, for personal letters as well as public literature, in the literary sphere and in the popular media. It is a required subject of study in all primary and secondary schools. It is the first language of most Muhajirs.
Spoken as a first language by 48% of Pakistanis, mostly in Punjab, Pakistan.
Spoken as a first language by 15% of Pakistanis, mostly in the North-West Frontier Province and in Baluchistan as well as by immigrants to the eastern provinces who are often not counted due to census irregularities. Additionally, Afghan refugees are often outside the census count, but appear to be largely Pashto speakers from Afghanistan.
Spoken as a first language by 12% of Pakistanis, mostly in Sindh.
Spoken as a first language by 3% of Pakistanis, mostly in Balochistan.
Nearly all of Pakistan's languages are Indo-European languages.
Punjabi, Hindko and Seraiki, all mutually intelligible, are classified by linguists as dialects of Lahnda , also spelled as Lehnda. These are also, to a lesser extent, mutually intelligible with Urdu. Added together, speakers of these mutually-intelligible languages make up nearly two-thirds of Pakistan's population.
Iranian Family of Languages
Brahui is believed to have Elamo-Dravidian origins.
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