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Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy", often Principia or Principia Mathematica for short) is a three-volume work by Isaac Newton published on July 5, 1687. Probably the most influential scientific book ever published, it contains the statement of Newton's laws of motion forming the foundation of classical mechanics as well as his law of universal gravitation. He derives Kepler's laws for the motion of the planets (which were first obtained empirically).
For an in-depth account of Newton's authoring of this work, see the writing of Principia Mathematica.
In formulating his physical theories, Newton had developed a field of mathematics known as calculus. However, the language of calculus was largely left out of the Principia. Instead, Newton recast the majority of his proofs as geometric arguments.
It is in the Principia that Newton expressed his famous Hypotheses non fingo ("I feign no hypotheses", that is, "I do not assert that any hypotheses are true"). Here is the passage containing this famous remark:
- I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena, and I do not feign hypotheses. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, or based on occult qualities, or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena, and afterwards rendered general by induction.
The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica is composed of three volumes.
- Of The Motion Of Bodies
- Of The Motion Of Bodies (contd.)
- The System Of The World
Location of copies
Many national rare book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica. Notable examples are
- The Wren Library in Trinity College Cambridge has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with hand written notes for the second edition.
- The Whipple Museum of the History of Science in Cambridge has a first edition copy which used to belong to Robert Hooke.
- Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.
- The Pepys Library in Magdalene College Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition.
- The Martin Bodmer Library keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see hand-written notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who invented calculus (although he published it later, Newton claimed that he invented it earlier). As an interesting side-note, the copy shows clear signs that Leibniz was an avid smoker.
Two more editions were published during Newton's lifetime:
Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, influenced Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship of the second edition. Newton did not intend to start any re-write of the Principia until 17091. Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz2, and by troubles at the Mint3, Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton 30 June 17134. Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes.
Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were:
However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.
The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.5
Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica
- Note 1: p.699, Richard S. Westfall. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge U. Press. 1980 ISBN 0-521-27435
- Note 2: Westfall, pp.712-716
- Note 3: Westfall, p.751-760
- Note 4: Westfall, p.750
- Note 5: Westfall, p.802
- Burndy Library online editions
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