Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- Alternative meanings: Plan, Isère , floor plan
A Plan is a proposed or intended method of getting from one set of circumstances to another. They are often used to move from the present situation, towards the achievement of one or more objectives or goals.
Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individuals humans in all of their pursuits. Structured and formal plans, used by multiple people, are more likey to occur in projects, diplomacy, careers, economic development, military campaigns, combat, or in the conduct of other business.
It is common for less formal plans to be created as abstract ideas, and remain in that form as they are maintained and put to use. More formal plans as used for business and military purposes, while initially created with and as an abstract thought, are likely to be written down, drawn up or otherwise stored in a form that is acessible to multiple people across time and space. This allows more reliable collaboration in the execution of the plan.
The term planning implies the working out of sub-components in some degree of detail. Broader-brush enunciations of objectives may qualify as metaphorical roadmaps.
Planning literally just means the creation of a plan; it can be as simple as making a list. It has acquired a technical meaning, however, to cover the area of government legislation and regulations related to the use of resources.
Planning can refer to the planned use of any and all resources, as in the succession of Five-Year Plans through which the government of the Soviet Union sought to develop the country. However, the term is most frequently used in relation to planning for the use of land and related resources, for example in urban planning, transportation planning, and so forth.
- Plans are of little importance, but planning is essential -- Winston Churchill
- Plans are nothing; planning is everything.-- Dwight D. Eisenhower
The discipline of planning has occupied great minds and theoreticians. Concepts such as top-down planning (as opposed to bottom-up planning) reveal similiarities with the systems thinking behind the Top-Down Model.
Types of plan
The tactic of violence that targets civilians, with the objective of forcing an enemy to favorable terms, by creating fear, demoralization, or political discord in the attacked population, is referred to as "Terrorism". The practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism is referred to as "Counter-terrorism".
Examples of plans
- The Schlieffen Plan
- The Five-Year Plan system in the former Soviet Union
- The Marshall Plan
- U.S. plan to invade Iraq
- marketing plan
- business plan
- site planning
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