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Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. There are many separate institutional entities that subscribe to Presbyterianism, in different nations around the world. Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment.
History of Presbyterianism
These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which literally means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church.
In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736.
Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people.
Characteristics of Presbyterians
Main article: Presbyterian church governance
Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant.
Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. Ministers are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery.
Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod.
Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ.
Varieties of Presbyterians in North America
Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada.
Famous American Presbyterians
- Dick Armey, U.S. Representative; conservative Republican from Texas
- John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice-President under Buchanan
- William Jennings Bryan of the famous Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee 1925 and three times U.S. Presidential nominee for the Democratic Party
- James Buchanan, 15th U.S. President
- Frederick Buechner, author of fantasy novels and non-fiction religious books
- Aaron Burr, U.S. Vice-President under Jefferson
- The Rev. Aaron Burr, co-founder of Princeton University
- John C. Calhoun, U.S. Vice-President under Adams and Jackson
- Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th U.S. President
- Brian DePalma, film director; raised as a Presbyterian
- John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State in the 1950s
- Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th President
- John Glenn, Astronaut, Senator
- Katherine Harris, Florida Secretary of State during the 2000 election crisis and current congresswoman (R)
- Benjamin Harrison, 23rd U.S. President
- A. A. Hodge, seminary professor
- Charles Hodge, seminary professor
- Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. President
- Stonewall Jackson, General in the Confederate Army
- James Knox Polk, 11th U.S. President (converted from Presbyterianism to Methodism)
- Ronald Reagan, 40th U.S. President
- Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State (2005- )
- The Rev. Fred Rogers, also known as the famous Mister Rogers, was an ordained Presbyterian Minister up until his death.
- Jimmy Stewart, actor
- Norman Thomas runs for President as the Socialist Party candidate in 1928
- Daniel D. Tompkins, U.S. Vice-President under Monroe
- Mark Twain, American author
- Henry A. Wallace, U.S. Vice-President under F.D. Roosevelt
- Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, Princeton Seminary professor
- William A. Wheeler, U.S. Vice-President under Hayes
- Christine Todd Whitman, former governor of New Jersey
- Woodrow Wilson, 28th President
- The Rev. John Witherspoon, only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence
- John Calvin
- John Knox
- Presbyterian Church in Canada
- Presbyterian Church in Taiwan
- Presbyterian Theological Faculty Ireland
- Protestant Reformation
- Reformed churches
- Covenant College
- Westminster Theological Seminary
- Greenville Presbyterian Seminary
- Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP)
- Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC)
- Cumberland Presbyterian Church
- Church of Scotland
- Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC)
- Map of USA showing percentage of Presbyterians in each county
- Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC)
- Presbyterian Church in America (PCA)
- Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ)
- Presbyterian Church of Australia
- Presbyterian Church in Brazil
- Presbyterian Church in Canada
- Presbyterian Church in Ireland
- Presbyterian Church USA (PCUSA)
- Presbyterian Church Malaysia (GPM)
- Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States
- United Church of Canada
- World Alliance of Reformed Churches
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