Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
President of the Philippines
The President is the head of state and of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. The president heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet, and is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
According to the current constitution (1987), the President must be at least 40 years of age, a Filipino citizen by birth, and is a resident of the Philippines for the past 10 years prior to election. The Filipinos directly elect the president who wins on a plurality vote. The president serves a term of six years and may no longer run for re-election, unless he/she becomes president through constitutional succession and have served for no more than 4 years as president.
1.1 First Republic (1899–1901)
The Philippines has had a total of fourteen presidents. Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, is considered the 14th president.
The Philippines had two presidents at one point during WW2 heading two governments. One was Quezon heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12.
- Manuel Luis Quezon : 1935–1941, 1941–1944 (died from Tuberculosis)
- Sergio Osmeņa : 1944–1946 (assumed the presidency on Quezon's death)
- Manuel Roxas : 1946
- Manuel Roxas : 1946–1948 (died from a heart attack)
- Elpidio Quirino : 1948–1949 (assumed the presidency on Roxas' death), 1949–1953
- Ramon Magsaysay : 1953–1957 (died in a plane crash)
- Carlos P. Garcia : 1957 (assumed the presidency on Magsaysay's death), 1957–1961
- Diosdado Macapagal : 1961–1965
- Ferdinand E. Marcos : 1965–1969, 1969–1972 (proclaimed martial law, September 22-23, 1972)
- Ferdinand E. Marcos : 1981–1986, 1986 (In 1973, a new constitution deemed to supersede 1935 Constitution; presidential rule continued however until a new term and "new republic" inaugurated in 1981; deposed)
Fifth Republic (1987–Present)
- Corazon C. Aquino : 1986–1992
- Fidel V. Ramos : 1992–1998
- Joseph Ejercito Estrada : 1998–2001 (deposed by Supreme Court) 1998–2004 (supposed tenure)
- Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo : 2001–2004 (assumed the presidency on Supreme Court approval ), 2004–present (elected tenure)
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