Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This article is about the military rank of private. For alternative meanings see: Private (disambiguation).
A private is a military soldier of the lowest military rank. The term dates from the Middle Ages where privates were known as "private soldiers" who were either hired, conscripted, or feudalized into service by a nobleman forming an army. The usage of private as a military rank dates from the 18th century, when the army of Napoleon Bonaparte first established the permanent rank of private.
The German rank of private is known as Schütze. The rank of Schütze has existed as a military rank since at least the 18th century and the term has been used since the Middle Ages. As in the British army, different names for this lowest rank are in use in the German army, for example Pionier (engineer), Kanonier (gunner) or Fallschirmjäger (paratrooper).
The Naval equivalent is known as Matrose , the Luftwaffe (air force) equivalent is Flieger .
In the British Army, many regiments and corps have distinctive (and descriptive) names for this rank:
- Trooper - Cavalry Regiments
- Sapper - Royal Engineers
- Craftsman - Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
- Gunner - Royal Artillery
- Signaller - Royal Signals
- Musician - Military bands
- Guardsman - Foot Guards
- Fusilier - Fusilier regiments
- Rifleman - Rifle regiments
- Kingsman - The King's Regiment
- Highlander - The Highlanders
In the Royal Marines the equivalent rank is Marine.
In the U.S. Army, private refers to the two lowest enlisted ranks, just below Private First Class. The lowest rank (officially known as Private E-1 and sometimes referred to as recruit) wears no uniform insignia, while the second (Private E-2) wears the insignia shown here. Advancement to the higher version of private (with insignia) is currently automatic after six months time in service, but may get shortened to four months if given a waiver (but an automatic pay raise takes effect after four months of service, even absent advancement to Private E-2, meaning that the rank of Private E-1 has two separate pay grades).
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details