Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. Neighbouring areas are Sindh to the south, Balochistan and Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan to the west, North-West Frontier, Pakistan, Azad Kashmir and Islamabad to the north and Punjab, India and other Indian states to the east.
Punjab is the second largest province at 205,344 kmē (79,284 square miles) and has the largest population: approximately 70 million in 1994. The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group. There is a nationalist movement amongst the Seraikis in the south of Punjab. Many wish to see a separate region set up called Seraikistan. The capital and main city of Punjab is Lahore, which has been the historical capital of the region. Many imporant Sikh shrines are in the Pakistani portion of Punjab, including the birthplace of the first Guru: Guru Nanak (born at Nankana Sahib). The once capital city of the Sikh Empire and the birth place of Maharaja Ranjit Singh , Gujranwala, is also in Punjab. However, the population of Punjab is now almost entirely Muslim.
The region contains the Thar and Cholistan deserts. The Indus river and its many tributaries traverse the Punjab from north to south. The name Punjab is composition of "Panj" and "Ab", which means "five waters," referring to the Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Chenab and Jhelum rivers. Part of Indus river also lies in Punjab, but it is not considered one of the "five" rivers. Despite its dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. Livestock and poultry production are also important.
Punjab is one of the most industrialized provinces of Pakistan; its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, metals, bicycles and rickshas, floor coverings, and processed foods.
Main article:List of cities in Punjab, Pakistan
- Chenab Naghar (Rabwah)
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