Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Qingdao (; Postal System Pinyin: Tsingtao) is a port sub-provincial city in the Shandong province of China, a naval base, and a major industrial city located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula, in Jiaozhou Bay, facing the Yellow Sea, at 119°30′-121°00′E;35°35′-37°09′N. In 2002 the population of the prefecture-level city jurisdiction area was around 7.1 million.
|Abbreviation: 胶 (pinyin: Jiāo) or 青 (Qing)|
|Origin of Name||青 - Natural blue|
岛 - Island
|Seat of Government||Shinan District|
- Total (2002)
|Ranked 1st |
|GDP in RMB„ |
- Total (2003)
- per capita
|Ranked 1st |
177.35 billion „
|Administration Type||Sub-provincial city|
|CPC Qingdao Committee Secretary||Du Shicheng|
|License Plate Prefix||鲁B|
- Formerly known as Jiao'ao (胶澳).
- Qindao (Traditional Chinese: 琴島, Simplified Chinese 琴岛, literally: "stringed instrument isle") is an additional modern Chinese name for the area which according to locals refers to the shape of the coastline.
Geography and Climate
Qingdao is located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely, Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10,654 km². The city is located in flatlands, with mountains spurring up nearby. The highest elevation in the area is 1133m above sea level. The city has a 730.64-kilometer coastline. 5 significant rivers that flow for more than 50km can be found in the region.
Qingdao enjoys mild summers and relatively warm winters, with the average July temperature at 23.8° and the average January temperature at -0.7°. The city gets most rain in June and July, at an average of 150mm.
The area of which Qingdao is located today was called Jiao'ao (胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty. In 1891, the Qing Government decided to make the area a primary defence base against naval attacks. Thus began the construction of the city of Qingdao. The city became a German concession in 1897 under a forced invasion and became a major German naval base in the Far East. This caused a great area of German influence within the whole of Shandong Province. Japan occupied it in 1914, after declaring war on Germany during World War I. The city reverted to Chinese Kuomintang (the ROC) rule in 1922. Renamed Qingdao in 1930, the city became a special administrative zone of the ROC Government. Japan re-occupied Qingdao in 1938 with its plans of territorial expansion onto China's coast. After World War II the KMT allowed Qingdao to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy. On June 2nd, 1949, the CPC-led Red Army entered Qingdao.
Since 1984 and China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, Qingdao has developed quickly as a modern port city, and is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet.
By the end of 2002, Qingdao is estimated to be the home for more than 7 million inhabitants, of which around 2.6 million is residing in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 2.3 million reside in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual number of births is calculated around 82,000, with a birth rate of 11.26/1000 population, and a death rate of 6.93/1000 population, both calculated on an annual basis. This results to a 4.33/1000 population growth rate overall. Living standards are among the leading Chinese cities, with relatively high incomes for families.
Qingdao is home to 38 ethnic minorities, albeit very insignificantly, with minority population only totalling around 10 thousand by 2000, 0.14% of the city's total population.
In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. Construction is at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao. Famous corporations include Haier.
In terms of primary industry, Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km²) of arable land. Qingdao has a zig-zagging pattern coastline, thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources. Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources, up to thirty different kinds have been mined. Qingdao's wind power electricity generation is among the best performance levels in the region.
- Ferries connecting Qingdao with Korea
- The Qingdao International Airport is 36km away from city center and is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 58 routes of which 10 are international and regional. It is estimated that in 2002 over 2.3 million people, including 450,000 international travelers, were transported in and out of the ariport.
Qingdao is home to one of China's largest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The 1999 annual cargo handling capacity was 72 million tons, exported commodities were more than 35 million tons and 1.5 million TEUs.
Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 90's. At the present, domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Jinan and Jining. There are a total of 1,145km of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly 500km(?) of expressways. Expressways connect Qingdao with Jinan.
Through the unique architecture in some parts of Qingdao, one can draw the inference that the city is a cultural combination of east and west. Most people who reside in the Qingdao urban area speak Mandarin Chinese, with a significant portion speaking the Shandong dialect. Cuisine is predominantly Lu Cai , the Shandong regional dishes. The area's most famous festival is the Qingdao International Beer Festival , held annually since 1991.
Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and excellent weather. Parks, beaches and sculpture -- as well as some unique architecture -- line the shore. Qingdao's major attractions include:
- Ba Da Guan , the older area of town with some surviving German architecture.
- Huadong Winery
- Jiaozhou Governor's Hall, former seat of the present and previous two governments.
- Laoshan, a famous Taoist mountain.
- Lu Xun Park , named after Lu Xun, a famous modern Chinese writer.
- Qingdao Beer Museum , on the site of the old brewery.
- Qingdao Naval Museum
- Qingdao International Beer City , the primary site of the annual Qingdao International Beer Festival .
- Qingdao Underwater World
- St. Michael's Cathedral, a Gothic/Roman cathedral designed by German architect Pepieruch , completed in 1934.
- Xiao Yu Shan (Little Fish Hill)
- Zhan Qiao (Zhan Pier)
- Zhanshan Temple, Qingdao's only Buddhist temple.
Educational institutions in Qingdao include:
- Ocean University of China (formerly Ocean University of Qingdao), the largest university of its kind in China
- Qingdao University
- Qingdao University of Science and Technology
Qingdao has long been a hub of professional sports in China. Clubs include:
- Chinese Super League of football (soccer)
- Qingdao Zhongneng
- Chinese Football Association Jia League
- Qingdao Hailifeng
Along with Beijing's winning bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, Qingdao will be the site for sailing events. These events will be held in Fushan Bay , near the city's central business district. A hotel and an international broadcasting center are under construction.
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