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A Quorum is a body (group) of those ordained the same office of the priesthood. The size of each quorum depends on the office to which the members are ordained.
General Authority Quorums
There are certain quorums of the church that are called to preside over the entire church. These quorum members are called General Authorities.
The Presidency of the Church (often called the First Presidency) is a quorum consisting of three high priests . The Presidency of the Church presides over the entire church, and only the President of the Church is authorized the direct the use all priesthood keys within the Church. The three members of this quorum are the Prophet/President of the Church, and first and second counselors.
The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles are to be "special witnesses of the name of Christ in all the world". This quorum is "equal in authority and power to the three presidents previously mentioned." It consists of twelve high priests who have been ordained to the office of Apostle. In most Latter Day Saint denominations, this quorumn hold priesthood keys, but they are only used under the direction of the First Presidency.
The Presiding Bishopric is a quorum consisting of three who are called to preside over the Aaronic Priesthood and some temporal affairs of the church. This quorum consists of the Presiding Bishop and two counselors, who hold priesthood keys to direct the temporal affairs and finances of the Church, in conjuntion with the Church presidency and Twelve. They also hold all of the keys of the Aaronic Priesthood
The Quorums of the Seventy "are also called to preach the gospel, and to be especial witnesses unto the Gentiles and in all the world". This quorum is "equal in authority to that of the Twelve special witnesses or Apostles just named." Each Quorum of the Seventy may consist of up to seventy ordained to the office of Seventy, and is presided over by seven presidents who hold keys to direct the affairs of the quorum. There may be up to seven such quorums that are called to witness in "all the world", but only the members of the first and second quorums are General Authorities.
The First Presidency, Quorum of the Twelve and Presiding Bishopric form a Quorum specified by revelation, but unnamed, that is to provide for the temporal affairs of the Church. Such things as use of Church finances, building of temples and other buildings, Welfare program, general assistance for things such as educational institutions, educational programs, and historically, such programs as the emmigration fund as well as other temporal issues.
Local Priesthood Quorums
Melchizedek Priesthood Quorums
A High Priests Quorum is a local quorum organized in each stake and presided over by the local stake presidency, who holds the keys of the Melchizedek priesthood with a stake. All Melchizedek priesthood members who have been ordained a High Priest and live within the stake are in this Quorum. Full quorum meetings are usually held semiannually; however, each ward also has a High Priest Group Leader who leads weekly meetings and oversees the day-to-day aspects of the High Priest quorum within a ward, under the direction of the quorum president.
All Melchizedek priesthood members who have been ordained to the office of High Priest (even if they hold another office) including High Priests, Patriarchs and Bishops, also belong to the High Priest quorum (this is true in all Latter Day Saint organizations, except those who have patriarch quorums, which are unspecified by revelation to Joseph Smith).
A Seventies Quorum is a local quorum that may consist of up to seventy members in each quorum, and presided over by seven presidents, each of who have keys and act under the direction and authority of the Stake President. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Seventies Quorums are no longer organized in local units (stakes and wards).
An Elders Quorum is a local quorum organized in each ward, but presided over by a president with priesthood keys, who acts under the direction and authority of the local stake presidency, and under the direction of the presiding high priest in the ward who is typcially a Bishop. Each quorum consists of up to ninety-six Elders.
A Melchizedek Priesthood Group is formed in a ward or branch where there are not enough High Priests to justify a High Priest group within a ward or branch (usually less than 20). In these cases, a High Priest is called to oversee the direction of both the High Priests and Elders, and is set apart as the Melchizedek Priesthood Group leader, under the direction of the Stake President.
Aaronic Priesthood Quorums
A Priests Quorum is a quorum consisting of up to forty-eight members of at least sixteen years of age, ordained to the office of Priest. If there are more than forty-eight Priests in the ward, then multiple quorums are organized. Priest Quorums are orgainized at the ward level and presided over by the ward Bishop, with the Bishop being the president of the quorum(s) and holds the keys of the Aaronic Priesthood in the ward . The Bishop typically calls two "assistants" to oversee the day-to-day affairs of the quorum.
A Teachers Quorum is a quorum consisting of up to twenty-four members of at least fourteen years of age, ordained to the office of Teacher. If there are more than twenty-four Teachers in the ward, then multiple quorums are to be organized. Teachers Quorums are orgainized at the ward level and act under the dirction of the Aaronic Priesthood president - the ward Bishop - who calls a Teacher's Quorum President who holds keys to direct the work of the quorum.
A Deacons Quorum is a quorum consisting of up to twelve members of at least twelve years of age, ordained to the office of Deacon. If there are more than twelve Deacons in the ward, then multiple quorums are to be organized. Deacons Quorums are orgainized at the ward level and act under the direction of the the ward Bishop - who is the Aaronic Priesthood president - who calls a Deacon's Quorum President who holds keys to direct the work of the quorum.
A Aaronic Priesthood Group is formed in a ward or branch where there are not enough Aaronic priesthood holder to form multiple quorums (usually less than 10 total). In these cases, a senior Aaronic priesthood holder (a priest if available, then a teacher if available) is called to "assist" the bishop to oversee the direction of Aaronic priesthood holders within the ward. This individual may be called a group leader or an assistant to the bishop depending on circumstances.
A Stake Presidency is a quorum consisting of three to administrate a unit of church organization called a stake. This quorum consists of the Stake President and two counselors who are each ordained to the office of high priest.
A Stake High Council is an administrative quorum consisting of twelve called that assist in the administration of a stake. Each of the members is ordained to the office of high priest, and also belongs to the High Priest quorum in the stake.
A Bishopric is a quorum consisting of three to administrate a church congregation or ward. This quorum consists of the Bishop and two conselors, each ordained to the office of high priest. The bishop is also the quorum president of the Priests Quorum in the ward, and therefore the bishopric is the quorum presidency.
A Quorum Presidency is an administrative quorum consisting of a quorum president who holds keys to direct the affairs of the quorum, and two counselors who he has selected to assist him. In most cases, the president will also select a secretary whom he will delegate authority to as needed.
Auxilliary presidencies and groups such as the Relief Society, Primary, Sunday School and Youth programs do not form quorums as they are auxilliary to the priesthood.
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