Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Richmond is a city located in Contra Costa County, California. It is north of El Cerrito and Albany in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. It almost surrounds San Pablo. The Bay Area Rapid Transit and Amtrak share a station there, which serves as a regional transit interchange. As of a July 1, 2002 Census estimate, the city has a population of 102,553.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 136.2 km² (52.6 mi²). 77.6 km² (30.0 mi²) of it is land and 58.5 km² (22.6 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 42.98% water.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 99,216 people, 34,625 households, and 23,025 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,277.8/km² (3,309.5/mi²). There are 36,044 housing units at an average density of 464.2/km² (1,202.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 31.36% White, 36.06% Black or African American, 0.64% Native American, 12.29% Asian, 0.50% Pacific Islander, 13.86% from other races, and 5.27% from two or more races. 26.53% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 34,625 households out of which 33.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% are married couples living together, 20.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 33.5% are non-families. 26.2% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.82 and the average family size is 3.44.
In the city the population is spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $44,210, and the median income for a family is $46,659. Males have a median income of $37,389 versus $34,204 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,788. 16.2% of the population and 13.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 23.1% of those under the age of 18 and 11.8% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
- 1910 - 6,802
- 1920 - 16,843
- 1930 - 20,093
- 1940 - 23,642
- 1950 - 99,545
- 1960 - 71,854
- 1970 - 79,043
- 1980 - 74,676
- 1990 - 87,425
- 2000 - 99,216
- 2002 - 102,553 (estimate)
Many industries have been pursued in Richmond. It had a dynamite and gunpowder works (closed in 1960), the last active whaling station in the US (closed in 1971), and one of the world's largest wineries (closed by Prohibition in 1919).
During World War II Richmond was developed rapidly as a heavy industrial town, chiefly devoted to shipbuilding. Its major activity now is as a seaport, and 26 million tonnes of goods were shipped through Port Richmond in 1993, mostly oil and petroleum products. Chevron USA has a major refinery in the city, with a storage capacity of 15 million barrels (2,400 m³). The Social Security Administration employs over 1,000 at its regional office and program service center in downtown Richmond.
The loss of its heavy industry has left Richmond as an area of relatively high unemployment, low wages, and low property values; many people employed in low wage jobs elsewhere in the Bay Area live in Richmond.
Leisure and culture
Several regional parks administered by the East Bay Regional Park District lie within the city limits, including the Miller/Knox Regional Shoreline and the Point Pinole Regional Shoreline. They are linked by the Bay Trail . Part of the former shipyard is now a Marina.
Two casinos have been proposed for Richmond, much to the delight of the cash-strapped city. Two more have been proposed in the area; one in the adjacent city of San Pablo, the other in unicorporated North Richmond see:Richmond, California Casino Proposals. The latter two projects were originally resented by Richmond, but those views have change since Richmond has gotten its fair share of casino fever.
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