Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Rif (Arif in the Berber language and er-Rif الريف in Arabic, ( It doesn't have the same meaning as in Arabic "countryside")) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river of Ouargha in the south.
The people of the Rif are Rifains ( the Berber people of north Morocco who call themselves: "Imazighen" or "Irifyen" ), and Arabs ( Arabised Rifains and authentic Arabs ), but the term " Rif " is generally used to indicate the Berber people of the Rif ( Irifiyen ).
In the Middle Ages, it was the home of the Kingdom of Nekor. In the twentieth century, under the leadership of Abd el-Krim el-Khattabi, a Moroccan national hero, it declared independence as the Rif Republic and withstood a Spanish invasion for several years.
Neighboring groups include Ghomara on the east, Senhaja on the southeast, and Beni Iznacen on the southwest, in addition to Algeria to the east. The principal spoken language of the region is Tarifit.
Traditionally, the principal Berber-Rif tribes of the region are:
- Beni Ouriaghel near Ajdir , around Oued Ghis (Abd el-Krim's tribe)
- Gzennaya , near the source of Oued Bayu, east of the Metalsa
- Galiya , in the region of Melilla
- Beni Shisher
- Beni Sidel
- Beni Bu Ifrur
- Beni Bu Yafer
- Kebdana , along the coast next to Oued Moulouya near the Algerian border
- Beni Said , west of Oued Kert
- Oulad Stut , an originally Arab tribe, south of the Kebdana
- Beni Bu Yahi , along Oued Moulouya south of the Oulad Stut
- Metalsa , east of the Beni Bu Yahi
- Beni Ulishk , southwest of Temsaman
- Tafersit , southwest of Temsaman
- Beni Tuzin , south of Temsaman
- Temsaman , around the town of that name, west of Al Hoceima
- Beni Amart , south of Beni Ouriaghel
- Targuist , southeast of Beni Ouriaghel
- Bokoya , between Ajdir and Bades
- Beni Itteft , east of Bades
- Beni Bu Frah , east of Beni Itteft
- Mestassa , east of Beni Bu Frah
- Mtiwa , between Mestassa and Oued Ouringa
The Rif mountains are home to the honeybee Apis mellifera major.
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