Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Robert G. Ingersoll
Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 - July 21, 1899) was an American political leader and orator, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism. He was prominent during the Golden Age of Freethought.
His father, John Ingersoll, was an abolitionist preacher. Ingersoll was born in Dresden, New York, but his family moved frequently because of his father's radical views before finally settling in Peoria, Illinois. Ingersoll apprenticed himself to lawyers there and hung out his shingle.
With the advent of the American Civil War, he raised the 11th Illinois Cavalry Regiment and took command. The regiment fought in the Battle of Shiloh. Ingersoll was later captured, then paroled on his promise that he would not fight again. (This was common practice early in the war.)
After the war, he served as Illinois Attorney General. He was a prominent member of the Republican Party, at that time the more progressive party. Although he never held any office, he was an active participant. His nominating speech for James G. Blaine in 1876 did not result in Blaine's candidacy, but the speech itself, known as the "Plumed Knight" speech, was considered the gold standard for political oratory.
Ingersoll was involved in several prominent trials as an attorney, notably the Star Route trials, a major political scandal in which his clients were acquitted. He also defended a New Jersey man for blasphemy. Although he did not win acquittal, his vigorous defense is considered to have discredited blasphemy laws and few other prosecutions followed.
Ingersoll was most noted as an orator, the most popular of the age, when oratory was public entertainment. He spoke on every subject, from Shakespeare to Reconstruction, but his most popular subjects were atheism and the sanctity and refuge of the family. He committed his speeches to memory although they were sometimes more than three hours long. His audiences were said never to be restless.
Many of Ingersoll's speeches advocated freethought and humanism, and often poked fun at religious belief. For this the press often attacked him, but neither his views nor the negative press could stop his rising popularity. At the height of Ingersoll's fame, audiences would pay $1 or more to hear him speak, a giant sum for his day.
Ingersoll died of heart failure at age 65. Soon after his death, Clinton P. Farrell , a brother-in-law, collected copies of Ingersoll’s speeches for publication. The 12-volume Dresden Editions kept interest in Ingersoll's ideas alive and preserved his speeches for future generations.
Quotations from Ingersoll
- A crime against god is a demonstrated impossibility.
- A good deed is the best prayer.
- Age after age, the strong have trampled upon the weak; the crafty and heartless have ensnared and enslaved the simple and innocent, and nowhere, in all the annals of mankind, has any god succored the oppressed.
- Blasphemy is an epithet bestowed by superstition upon common sense.
- Courage without conscience is a wild beast.
- Every library is an arsenal.
- The hands that help are better far than the lips that pray.
Quotation about Ingersoll
- "What an organ human speech is when employed by a master." Mark Twain on Ingersoll.
- Ingersoll biography
- Robert Green Ingersoll writings in fulltext
- Ingersoll Memorial Home Page from the Council for Secular Humanism
- Ingersoll on sabbath superstition
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