Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Rockville is the county seat of Montgomery County, Maryland. According to the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 47,388, making it the fifth largest city in Maryland. Rockville has a sister city arrangement with Pinneberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Rockville is approximately in the center of Montgomery County. Its location is 39°5' North, 77°9' West.
Situated in the Piedmont region and crossed by three creeks (Rock Creek, Cabin John Creek, and Watts Branch), Rockville provided an excellent refuge for semi-nomadic Native Americans as early as 8000 BC. By the first millennium BC, a few of these groups had settled down into year-round agricultural communities that exploited the native flora, including sunflowers and marsh elder . By 1200 AD, these early groups (dubbed Montgomery Indians by later archaeologists) were increasingly drawn into conflict with the Senecas and Susquehannocks who had migrated south from Pennsylvania and New York. Within the present-day boundaries of the city, six prehistoric sites have been uncovered and documented, and borne artifacts several thousand years old. By the year 1700, under pressure from European colonists, the majority of these original inhabitants had been driven away.
The first land patents in the Rockville area were obtained by Arthur Nelson between 1717 and 1735. Within three decades, the first permanent buildings in what would become the center of Rockville were established on this land. Still a part of Prince George's County at this time, the growth of Daniel Dulaney's Frederick Town prompted the seperation of the western portion of the county, including Rockville, into Frederick County in 1748.
Being a small, unincorporated town, early Rockville was known by a variety of names, including Owen's Ordinary, Hungerford's Tavern, Daley's Tavern. The first recorded mention of the settlement which would later become known as Rockville dates to the Braddock Expedition in 1755. On April 14, one of the approximately two thousand men who were accompanying General Edward Braddock through wrote the following: "we marched to larance Owings or Owings Oardianary, a Single House, it being 18 miles and very dirty." Owen's Ordinary was a small rest stop on Rock Creek Main Road (later Rockville Pike), which stretched from George Town to Frederick, and was then one of the largest thoroughfares in the colony of Maryland.
On September 6, 1776, the Maryland Constitutional Convention agreed to a proposal introduced by Dr. Thomas Sprigg Wootton wherein Frederick County, the largest and most populous county in the Maryland, would be divided into three smaller units. The southern portion of the county, of which Rockville was a part, was named Montgomery County. The most populous and prosperous urban center in this new county was George Town, but it's location at the far southern edge rendered it worthless as a seat of local government. Rockville, a small, but centrally located and well travelled, was chosen as the seat of the county's government. Thereafter, the village was referred to by all as Montgomery Court House.
In 1784, William Prather Williams, a local landowner, hired a surveyor to lay out much of the town. In his honor, many took to calling the town Williamsburgh. In practice, however, Williamsburgh and Montgomery Court House were used interchangeably. On July 16, 1803, when the area was officially entered into the county land records, however, the name used was "Rockville," believed to be derived from Rock Creek. Nevertheless, the name Montgomery Court House continued to appear on maps and other documents through the 1820s.
By petition of Rockville's citizens, the Maryland General Assembly incorporated the village on March 10, 1860. General George B. McClellan stayed at the Beall Dawson house in 1862. During the American Civil War, General J.E.B. Stuart and an army of 8,000 Confederate cavalrymen marched through and occupied Rockville on June 28, 1863 while on their way to Gettysburg. Jubal Anderson Early had also crossed through Maryland, on his way to and from his attack on Washington.
In 1873, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad arrived, making Rockville easily accessible from Washington, D.C. In July 1891 , the Tenallytown and Rockville Railway Company inaugurated Rockville's first trolley service, and in 1900, the Washington and Rockville Electric Railway Company extended its trolley service from Georgetown to Rockville, connecting Rockville to Washington, DC by trolley. Trolley service operated for four decades, until, eclipsed by the growing popularity of the automobile, service was halted in August 1935 . The Blue Ridge Transportation Company provided bus service for Rockville and Montgomery County from 1924 through 1955. After 1955, Rockville would not see a concerted effort to develop a public transportation infrastructure until the 1970s, when the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) began work to extend the Washington Metro into Rockville and extended Metrobus service into Montgomery County. The Rockville station of Washington Metro was opened on December 15, 1984. Metrobus service was supplemented by Montgomery County's own Ride On bus service starting in 1979.
From the 1960s, Rockville's town center, formerly one of the area's commercial centers, suffered from a period of decline. Attempts to revitalize interest in the region culminated in the unsuccessful Rockville Mall which failed to attract either major retailers or customers, and was demolished in 1994. Although efforts to restore the town center continue, the majority of the city's economic activity has since relocated along Rockville Pike. In 2004, Rockville Mayor Larry Giammo announced plans to renovate the Rockville Town Center, including building new stores, housing, and relocating the city's library.
The grave site of F. Scott Fitzgerald is located in Rockville, and there is a small theater, next to Glenview Mansion, named after him. In addition, a new arts center and theater, named Strathmore Hall, opened up in 2005. It will become the second home of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra .
Rockville is located at 39°5'1" North, 77°8'54" West (39.083708, -77.148226).
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 47,388 people, 17,247 households, and 12,003 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,360.3/km² (3,524.1/mi²). There are 17,786 housing units at an average density of 510.6/km² (1,322.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 67.78% White, 9.11% African American, 0.34% Native American, 14.83% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.78% from other races, and 3.13% from two or more races. 11.67% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 17,247 households out of which 33.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% are married couples living together, 9.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% are non-families. 23.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.9% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.65 and the average family size is 3.13.
In the city the population is spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $68,074, and the median income for a family is $79,051. Males have a median income of $53,764 versus $38,788 for females. The per capita income for the city is $30,518. 7.8% of the population and 5.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 8.9% of those under the age of 18 and 7.9% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Law and government
Mayor or City Executive
The current Mayor of Rockville is Larry Giammo. Previous Mayors include:
- William V. Bouic 1888-1890
- Daniel F. Owens 1890
- William V. Bouic 1890-1891
- Hattersley W. Talbott 1892-1893
- Jacob Poss 1893-1894
- John G. England 1894-1896
- Joseph Reading 1896-1898
- Spencer C. Jones 1898-1901
- Hattersley W. Talbott 1901-1906
- Lee Offutt 1906-1916
- Willis Burdette 1916-1918
- Lee Offutt 1918-1920
- O. M. Linthicum 1920-1924
- Charles G. Holland 1924-1926
- J. Roger Spates 1926-1932
- Douglas Blandford 1932-1946
- G. LaMar Kelly 1946-1952
- Daniel Weddle 1952-1954
- Dickran Y. Hovsepian 1954-1958
- Alexander J. Greene 1958-1962
- Frank A. Ecker 1962-1968
- Achilles M. Tuchtan 1968-1972
- Matthew J. McCartin 1972-1974
- William E. Hanna, Jr. 1974-1982
- John R. Freeland 1982-1984
- Viola D. Hovsepian 1984-1985 (appointed mayor)
- Steven Van Grack 1985-1987
- Douglas M. Duncan 1987-1993
- James Coyle 1993-1995
- Rose G. Krasnow 1995-2001
- Larry Giammo 2001-Present
Rockville has a four-member City Council, which serves as the legislative body of the city. The current Council members are Susan Hoffman, Bob Dorsey, John Hall, and Ann Robins.
Colleges and universities
- Montgomery College (Rockville Campus) (a 2-year institution)
- UMUC - University of Maryland, University College (a 4-year institution); main campus in Adelphi, Maryland
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details