Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Name, Symbol, Number||Rubidium, Rb, 37|
|Group, Period, Block||1(IA), 5, s|
|Density, Hardness||1532 kg/m3, 0.3|
|Appearance|| silvery white|
|Atomic weight||85.4678 amu|
|Atomic radius (calc.)||235 (265) pm|
|Covalent radius||211 pm|
|van der Waals radius||2.44|
|e- 's per energy level||2, 8, 18, 8, 1|
|Oxidation states (Oxide)||1 (strong base)|
|Crystal structure||Cubic body centered|
|State of matter||solid|
|Melting point||312.46 K (102.76 °F)|
|Boiling point||961 K (1270 °F)|
|Molar volume||55.76 ×10-6 m3/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||72.216 kJ/mol|
|Heat of fusion||2.192 kJ/mol|
|Vapor pressure (312.6 K)||1.56 × 10-4 Pa|
|Speed of sound||1300 m/s at 293.15 K|
|Electronegativity||0.82 (Pauling scale)|
|Specific heat capacity||363 J/(kg*K)|
|Electrical conductivity||7.79 106/(m·ohm)|
|Thermal conductivity||58.2 W/(m*K)|
|1st ionization potential||403.0 kJ/mol|
|2nd ionization potential||2633 kJ/mol|
|3rd ionization potential||3860 kJ/mol|
|4th ionization potential||5080 kJ/mol|
|5th ionization potential||6850 kJ/mol|
|6th ionization potential||8140 kJ/mol|
|7th ionization potential||9570 kJ/mol|
|8th ionization potential||13120 kJ/mol|
|9th ionization potential||14500 kJ/mol|
|10th ionization potential||26740 kJ/mol|
|Most stable isotopes|
|SI units & STP are used except where noted.|
Rubidium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rb is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group. Rb-87, a naturally occurring isotope, is (slightly) radioactive. Rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to other elements in group 1, like igniting spontaneously in air.
Rubidium is the second most electropositive of the alkaline elements and can be a liquid at room temperature. Like other group 1 elements this metal ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently in water, liberating and sometimes igniting hydrogen. Also like other alkali metals, it forms amalgams with mercury and it can form alloys with gold, caesium, sodium, and potassium. The element gives a yellowish violet color to a flame.
Rubidium can be easily ionized, and because of this has been considered for use in ion engines for space vehicles (but caesium and xenon are more efficient for this purpose). Other potential or current uses:
- As a working fluid in vapor turbines .
- As a getter in vacuum tubes.
- As a photocell component.
- In the making of special glasses.
- RbAg4I5 has the highest room temperature conductivity of any known ionic crystal. This property could be useful in thin film batteries and in other applications.
- Also considered for use in a thermoelectric generator using the magnetohydrodynamic principle where rubidium ions are formed by heat at high temperature and passed through a magnetic field. These conduct electricity and act like an armature of a generator thereby generating an electric current.
- Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color.
Rubidium (L rubidus, deepest red) was discovered in 1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in the mineral lepidolite through the use of a spectroscope. However this element had minimal industrial use until the 1920s. Historically, the most important use for rubidium has been in research and development, primarily in chemical and electronic applications.
This element is considered to be the 16th most abundant element in the earth's crust. It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, pollucite , and zinnwaldite, which contains traces of up to 1% of its oxide. Lepidolite contains 1.5% rubidium and this is the commercial source of the element. Some potassium minerals and potassium chlorides also contain the element in commercially significant amounts. One notable source is also in the extensive deposits of pollucite at Bernic Lake , Manitoba. Rubidium metal can be produced by reducing rubidium chloride with calcium among other methods. Rubidium forms at least four oxides: Rb2O, Rb2O2, Rb2O3, RbO2. In 1997 the cost of this metal in small quantities was about US$ 25/gram.
There are 24 isotopes of rubidium known with naturally occurring rubidium being composed of just two isotopes; Rb-85 (72.2%) and the radioactive Rb-87 (27.8%). Normal mixes of rubidium are radioactive enough to expose photographic film in approximetely 30 to 60 days.
Rb-87 has a half-life of 48.8×109 years. It readily substitutes for potassium in minerals, and is therefore fairly widespread. Rb has been used extensively in dating rocks ; Rb-87 decays to stable strontium-87 by emission of a negative beta particle. During fractional crystallization, Sr tends to become concentrated in plagioclase, leaving Rb in the liquid phase. Hence, the Rb/Sr ratio in residual magma may increase over time, resulting in rocks with increasing Rb/Sr ratios with increasing differentiation . Highest ratios (10 or higher) occur in pegmatites. If the initial amount of Sr is known or can be extrapolated, the age can be determined by measurement of the Rb and Sr concentrations and the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio. The dates indicate the true age of the minerals only if the rocks have not been subsequently altered. See Rubidium-Strontium dating for a more detailed discussion.
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