Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
In the sport of cricket, a run is the basic unit of scoring. Runs are is scored by a batsman, and the aggregate of the batsmen's scores (plus any extras) constitutes the team score. A batsman scoring 50 (a 'half century') or 100 runs (a 'century') is considered an achievement. The rules concerning the scoring of runs are mostly contained in Law 18 of the Laws of cricket.
A run is scored when the batsmen, at any time while the ball is in play, have crossed and made good their ground from end to end; when a boundary is scored; when penalty runs are awarded; when Lost ball is called.
A run is short if a batsman fails to make good his ground on turning for a further run. Although a short run shortens the succeeding one, the latter is not regarded as short if it is completed. A striker taking stance in front of his popping crease may run from that point also without penalty. There is a rule that operates if either umpire considers that either or both batsmen deliberately run short. First the umpire gives a warning to the batsman that this is unfair and disallow any earned runs from that delivery. If any batsmen deliberately run short again in that innings a 5 run penalty is conceded to the bowling side. In practice, this rule is rarely in point.
As of 19 August 2004, the record score for a batsman in one innings in an ODI match is 194 runs, and the highest team score in an ODI is 398. The average runs scored per team in an ODI is around 245 runs. Sachin Tendulkar is the batsman with the highest number of career runs in ODIs with over 11,000 runs.
In Test cricket, more runs are usually scored in an innings because there is no limit on the number of overs that may be bowled in an innings. The record for the highest number of runs scored by a batsman in a single Test innings is held by Brian Lara, who scored 400 runs not out for the West Indies against England at St Lucia. Brian Lara also holds the record for the highest number of runs scored by a batsman in a single first-class innings with an innings of 501 not out for Warwickshire against Durham at Edgbaston. The highest team score in Test cricket is 952.
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