Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Antei 9K330/9K331/9K332 "Tor" (Russian 9К330/9К331/9К332 "Тор" - torus, NATO reporting name SA-15 "Gauntlet") is a low and medium-altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for engaging aircraft, helicopters, cruise-missiles, precision munitions and remotely-piloted vehicles. It is designed to protect targets from attack at all times and in any weather not only by shooting down attacking aircraft but also destroying any munitions before they reach the target. It is air-portable and equipped with NBC (nuclear, biological and chemical) protection.
Each 9K331 vehicle is a completely autonomous TELAR although it can be linked into a greater air-defence system. The radar is a modern, phased-array type and eight missiles are stored vertically, ready to fire. Target tracking range is 24 km (15 miles), engagement range is up to 12 km (1-7.5 miles) with minimum range varying between 100-2000 m (328-5,621 feet) depending upon version, and effective altitude is 10-6000 m (33-20,000 ft). The 9K331 TELAR uses the same chassis as the 2S6/9M111 "Tunguska" (NATO reporting name SA-19 "Grisom") integrated air-defence system. Reaction time (from target detection to engagement) is stated as a rapid 5-8 seconds. Targets can be acquired and tracked on-the-move and missiles can be fired without stopping however the reaction time is somewhat longer (around 10 seconds rather than 4) whilst in motion. An APU (auxilliary power unit) is fitted so that the main engine can be shut down while the radar and missile systems continue to operate when stationary, enabling long periods of readiness.
The computer control of the Tor system is a giant leap for Soviet/Russian technology. The digital computers allow for a high degree of automation, similar to the US Patriot missile system. Target threat classification is automatic and the system can be operated with little input from operators required, if desired. This is one reason for the high degree of accuracy, ability to intercept small, fast and highly maneuverable targets, and the very fast reaction times of the system.
In addition to the self-propelled, tracked vehicle there are also truck-mounted and towed versions of the Tor. The Tor is designed to replace the 9K33 "Osa" (NATO reporting name SA-8 "Gecko") system. It features a much greater degree of automation than many SAM systems, especially its predecessors. It has been compared to the British Rapier missile and French Crotale missile systems.
The 9M330 missile is 3.5 m (11.5 ft) long with a peak speed speed of around Mach 2.8 and each 167 kg (368 lb) missile carries a 15 kg (33 lb) warhead. Guidance is via radio command and detonation via a radar proximity fuze. The missiles can maneuver at up to 30Gs and can engage targets flying at up to Mach 2. Missiles are propelled out of the vehicle before the solid fuel rocket motor fires and the gas-dynamic maneuvering system turns them toward their target. Missiles can even be fired against surface targets. Each missile is a sealed round, stored in two groups of four.
Kill probabilities for later versions are quoted as:
- 0.92-0.95 against aircraft
- 0.80-0.96 against helicopters
- 0.60-0.90 against cruise missiles (with an effective range of around 5 km/3 miles)
- 0.70-0.90 against precision munitions (LGBs, glide bombs, etc.)
- 0.90 against UAVs
There are two radar systems mounted on the TELAR:
- "Dog Ear" E/F-band pulse/doppler phased-array surveillance radar (maximum detection range 25 km/16 mi) which can detect up to 48 targets and track ten of them, including IFF functionality.
- "Scrum Half" G/H and later K-band phased-array engagement radar (maximum tracking range 20 km/12 mi) which can guide two missiles.
There is also a small antenna to communicate with missiles after launch and before they are acquired by the engagement radar. The surveillance radar can be folded down horizontal when travelling to reduce the height of the vehicle and the tracking radar can partially rotate away from vertical to reduce its height. There is an optical tracking system to complement the tracking radar and allow engagements in a heavy ECM environment.
The naval version of this system utilises the following radars:
- 3R95 "Cross Swords" G-band surveillance radar (maximum detection range range 45 km/28 mi)
- 3R95 "Cross Swords" K-band engagement radar (maximum tracking range 15 km/9 mi).
- 9K330 "Tor" with the 9M330 missile, minimum range 2 km (1.2 mi), introduced in 1986
- 9K331 "Tor-M" with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5 km (0.9 mi), introduced in 1991, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously
- 9K331M "Tor-M1", "Tor-M1T" with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5 km (0.9 mi)
- 9K332 "Tor-M2", "Tor-MTA", "Tor-MTB", "Tor-MTS" with the 9M331 missile and a new surveillance radar, minimum range 1 km (0.6 mi)
3K95 "Kinzhal" (Russian Кинжал - dagger) is the naval version of the Tor and has the NATO reporting name SA-N-9. It is installed on Kuznetsov-class aircraft carriers, Udaloy -class anti-submarine destroyers and Neustrashimy -class frigates. It can guide missiles to up to four targets at once. Range of the ship-borne surveillance radar is 45 km (28 miles). 24-64 missiles are carried in groups of eight. A 30mm cannon is also incorporated into the system for close-in defence, enhancing the capability against anti-ship missiles. Ushakov-class guided missile nuclear cruisers are fitted with 128-missile Kinzhal installations.
The naval version of the later Tor-M1 is known as the "Yezh" (Russian Еж - hedgehog). The export version of the Kinzhal is known as "Klinok" (Russian Клинок - blade).
HQ-17 (Hongqi-17) is a Chinese copy of the 9K331M system which is replacing the HQ-61, an indiginously designed SAM system.
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details