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Sa'id of Egypt
Sa'id of Egypt (1822-1863) was the Viceroy (or 'Pasha') of Egypt from 1854 until 1863, under the Ottoman Empire. He was the fourth son of Viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha (1769-1849). Sa'id was a Francophile, educated in Paris.
Under Sa'id's rule there were some law, land and tax reforms, and some modernization of Egyptian infrastructure built using western loans. In 1854 the first act of concession of land for the Suez Canal was granted, to a French businessman Ferdinand de Lesseps. The British opposed a Frenchman building the canal and persuaded the Ottoman Empire to deny permission for two years.
The Sudan has been conquered by his father in 1821, mainly in order to seize slaves for his army. Slave raids (the annual 'razzia ') also ventured beyond Sudan into Kordofan and Ethiopia. Facing European pressure to abolish official Egyptian slave raids in the Sudan, Sa'id issued a decree banning raids. Freelance muslim traders ignored his decree. At the behest of Napoleon III in 1863, Sa'id despatched part of a Sudanese battalion to Mexico to help put down a rebellion there.
Under Sa'id rule the influence of sheikhs was curbed and many Bedouin reverted to nomadic raiding.
In 1854 he established the Bank of Egypt .
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