Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This article is about the plant genus called sage. For the herb and spice Salvia officinalis see common sage. For other meanings see Sage (disambiguation).
see List of Salvia species Sage is a term used for plants of the genus Salvia of the mint family, Lamiaceae. When used without modifiers, sage generally refers to common sage (Salvia officinalis); however, it can be used with modifiers to refer to any member of the genus. The ornamental species are most commonly referred to as Salvias. This genus includes shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Types of sage are grown as herbs and for ornament.
The name Salvia comes from the Latin verb salvare, "to heal or redeem".
Some Artemisia species are also referred to as sages, a shortened version of sagebrush, which is a more appropriate term for them. They generally taste vile and are not used in food preparation, although many of them are used medicinally. Smudge bundles are made with various grey-leaved species of Artemisia and are misrepresented as "whitesage" smudges. The true whitesage is Salvia apiana, which has a delightful scent when burned.
- Salvia apiana, White sage, California white sage, a perennial at home in the mountains of Southern California, sometimes found in the desert of southern Arizona
- Salvia candelabrum , a blue-flowering scented sage
- Salvia clevelandii, Blue sage , Cleveland sage, Fragrant sage, with a very strong scent, found either delightful or disgusting
- Salvia fulgens, Cardinal sage , Mexican red sage, a red-flowering perennial
- Salvia greggii, Autumn sage , a red-flowered sage with a very strong scent
- Salvia lyrata, Lyre-leaved sage , Lyreleaf sage, Cancerweed, a purple-flowering perennial
- Salvia officinalis, Common sage; this is the best-known form of sage. There are several varieties
- Salvia pratensis, Meadow clary , Meadow sage , a blue-flowering species
- Salvia sclarea, Clary (or Clary sage), a biennial sage with enormous (for sages) flower spikes, quite showy, used in teas
- Salvia spathacea, Hummingbird sage, a magenta-flowering annual with huge leaves
- Salvia verticillata, Whorled clary , Lilac sage, a white- or blue-flowering perennial with the scent of Clary
- Salvia argentea, Silver sage , usually a showy-flowered biennial, named for the color of its foliage
- Salvia azurea, Blue sage , Azure blue sage; this species has very big bright blue flowers
- Salvia coccinea, Blood sage , a scarlet-flowered tender perennial
- Salvia farinacea, Mealycup sage , grown as an annual in temperate climates will survive mild winters
- Salvia horminum, (syn.: S. viridis) Painted sage , an annual with showy blue, pink or white flower bracts
- Salvia patens , a blue-flowering annual
- Salvia splendens, Scarlet sage , a red-flowering annual
- Salvia x superba , a purple-flowering perennial
- Salvia arizonica, Arizona sage , Desert indigo sage , a purple-flowering annual, native to Texas
- Salvia carnosa , a blue-flowering annual, native to the Arizona desert
- Salvia columbariae , Chia, Chia sage , California chia, a blue-flowering annual native to California desert
- Salvia polystachya , Chia sage, Chia seed
- Salvia potus , Chia.
Several types of Salvia are used medicinally:
- aromatic varieties (usually strongly scented leaves, also used as herbs)
- non-aromatic varieties (not considered medicinal, but many still have a scent)
- Chia sages
- Diviner's sage, Salvia divinorum
The aromatic sages strengthen the lungs and can be used in teas or tinctures to prevent coughs. Less aromatic species of Salvia are run-of-the-mill mint-family anti-inflammatories, which means that they can be used for pretty much any infection or inflammation, and will give at least some relief.
White sage (Salvia apiana) is a very strong general anti-inflammatory, used as tea or tincture. The tincture has a very nice scent and can be used as a perfume. This species is the famous whitesage of smudge sticks.
Pineapple sage (Salvia elegans, old: S. rutilans) is a tender perennial with pineapple-scented leaves. Medicinally, this is perhaps closest to the scented geraniums , a sweet-smelling Pelargonium species.
Red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is used medicinally in Traditional Chinese medicine.
Diviner's sage (Salvia divinorum) also called Yerba de la Pastora or sometimes just Salvia, is a plant that differs from all the other sages. It is a Mexican visionary herb and there is some evidence it is a true cultivar. It is known to have strong psychoactive properties.
- ITIS 32680 2002-09-06
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