Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
|National motto: A mare labor|
|President of the General Council||Marc Plantegenest|
– % water
– Total (2004)
|Currency||Euro (€ EUR)|
|has been under French control since 1763|
Main article: History of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
During the 16th century, the islands were used as a base for the seasonal cod fishery by the French of La Rochelle, Granville , Saint-Malo and the Basque Country. When French explorer Jacques Cartier was in Saint-Pierre in 1536 he made note of the French and Breton fishery.
In 1778 the islands were attacked and the population deported by the British as retaliation for French support of the American Revolutionary War.
Although France regained the islands in 1783, by 1793, British hostility to the French Revolution and the fact that France had declared war with Britain led to another British attack on the islands and the deportation of the entire population.
The islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.
They have always been most important as a fishing centre, being in easy travel distance of the Grand Banks off Newfoundland, some of the world's richest fishing grounds.
After Germany invaded most of Europe during World War II, the islands were controlled by Vichy France. On Christmas day 1941, Free French forces led by Rear-Admiral Émile Muselier liberated the islands on behalf of Charles de Gaulle. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon became the focus of a serious rift between Free French forces and the United States Department of State, which was courting Vichy France and sent ships to take the islands back.
The islands became a full département d'outre mer of France in 1976. This status was modified in 1985 and the islands became a territory with special status (collectivité territoriale à statut particulier).
Main article: Politics of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
In 1992, a maritime boundary dispute with Canada over the delineation of the Exclusive Economic Zone belonging to France was settled by the International Court of Arbitration . In the decision, France kept the 12 nautical mile (NM) territorial sea surrounding the islands and was given an additional 12 NM contiguous zone as well as a 10.5 NM wide corridor stretching 200 NM south. The total area in the award was 18% of what France had contested.
Main article: Geography of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
The island of Saint Pierre is surrounded by smaller dependencies which include the island of Grand Colombier, Petit Colombier, and Île aux Marins formally known as Île aux Chiens.
The climate is very damp and windy, the winters are harsh and long. The spring and early summer are foggy and cool. Late summer and early fall are sunny.
Main article: Economy of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
The islands were dependent upon the cod fishery for the best part of the last four centuries. However, overfishing on the Grand Banks has led Canada to impose a long closure of this industry. Since fishing quotas are governed by Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the French Fishery have been seriously affected.
In Saint Pierre and Miquelon, many efforts are being made, with the help of the French Government, to diversify the local economy. Tourism, fish farming, crab fishing and agriculture are being developed.
Main article: Demographics of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Main article: Culture of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
French patriotism is still strong on the islands, and the islanders are proud that some of the soil on the island is French, having been brought over in the ballasts of ships.
Community, Culture and History Links
- History of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
- St Pierre & Miquelon Online Community
- Philatelic articles by David Allen
- The liberation of St Pierre & Miquelon December 24th 1941 by the Free French Naval Forces
- The Liberation of Saint Pierre and Miquelon by Richard Doody
- Saint-Pierre & Miquelon Online Magazine
- Local Telecom Provider & Webcam
- St Pierre & Miquelon Television and Radio
- Violin Making Workshop
- Municipal Board of St-Pierre
- Music festival and cultural events
- St-Pierre Cultural and Sporting Center
Tourism and Travel Links
- Local Airline Air Saint-Pierre
- Ferry service for Saint-Pierre, Miquelon and Fortune Newfoundland
- Wikitravel for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
- St-Pierre et Miquelon Tourist Office Official Website
- Tourism and Travel Resources for St Pierre & Miquelon
- Frequently Asked Questions Tourism and Travel
- Maps of Towns in Saint-Pierre & Miquelon
- Official Travel & Tourist Guide 2005
- Discover France!
- CIA World Factbook entry for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
- SPMNET.com - Professionnal directory of St-Pierre & Miquelon
- Photos de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
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