Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This page is for the city of Salzburg. For the surrounding state of Salzburg, see: Salzburg (state)
Salzburg (population 145,000 in 2003) is a city in western Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg (population 520,000 in 2003). The geographic coordinates of Salzburg are 47.81 degrees north, 13.04 degrees east.
The city is located on the banks of the Salzach river, at the northern boundary of the Alps. The backdrop of mountains to the south contrasts with the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak - the 1972m Untersberg - is only a few kilometers from the city center. The inner city, or old town, is dominated by its baroque towers and many churches. This area is surrounded by two smaller mountains, the Mönchsberg and Kapuzinerberg . The city is approximately 150km east of Munich, and 300km west of Vienna.
The first settlements at Salzburg were apparently begun by the Celts. Around 15BC the separate settlements were covoluted into one city by the Romans. At this point in time the city was called Juvavum and was awarded the status of a roman municipium in 45AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. A Roman Catholic diocese was formed in the town around 700, which later became an archdiocese responsible for Bavaria.
The economic wealth of the town during this time was based on salt-mining. The salz in the town's name is the German word for salt. The town's river was a main artery for transporting salt mined in nearby mountains.
Until 1803, the Archbishop of Salzburg was the ruler of the city and the surrounding territory. Successive archbishop princes moulded the town, with the most influential being Wolf Dietrich who was largely responsible for the shape of the city today. His influence saw the creation of the towering Salzburg cathedral, the Mirabell Garden , and other landmarks.
During World War II, the city was lucky not to sustain heavy damage from Allied bombing runs. The towns bridges and the dome of the cathedral were demolished, however much of the town's baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, it is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style.
In 1965, the movie The Sound of Music was filmed in Salzburg and the state of Salzburg. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, a Salzburg-based nun who took up with an aristocratic family and fled German occupation. Although the film is relatively unknown to Austrians, the town draws a large percentage of visitors who wish to relive the movie by visiting the filming locations.
- The famous composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born and raised in Salzburg. His house of birth and residence are popular tourist attractions. His family is buried in a small church graveyard in the old town, and there are many monuments to "Wolferl" in the city.
- Christian Doppler, an expert on acoustic theory, was born in Salzburg. He is most renowned for his discovery of the Doppler effect.
- Josef Mohr was born in Salzburg. Together with Franz Gruber, he composed and wrote the text for Silent Night. As a priest in neighbouring Oberndorf he performed the song for the first time in 1818.
- Salzburg is also the birthplace of Hans Makart, a 19th century Austrian painter-decorator and national celebrity. Makartplatz (Makart Square) is named in his honour.
- The Salzburg Festival is a world-renowned music festival that attracts visitors during the months of July and August each year. A smaller Salzburg Easter Festival is held around Easter each year.
- Salzburg was a candidate city for the 2006 and 2010 Olympic Winter Games. It was a favourite in its 2010 bid, but lost out to Vancouver. On January 24th, 2005, it was once again selected by the Austrian Olympic Committee as their candidate for the 2014 Winter Olympics.
- The Europrix multimedia award takes place in Salzburg.
Salzburg is considered a tourist favourite, with the number of tourists outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times.
- Skiing is a key attraction during Winter. Salzburg itself has no skiing facilities, but it acts as a gateway to many skiing areas to the south. During the Winter months its airport receives a huge number of charter flights from around Europe.
- The baroque "old town", with highlights including the Salzburg Cathedral , and the Mirabell Garden .
- The Untersberg is next to the city, straddling the German-Austrian border, and on a clear day provides panoramic views of the city and the Alps.
The city is serviced by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east-west trains servicing Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck, and Zürich; including twice-daily high-speed ICE services. The city also acts as a hub for south-bound trains through the Alps into Italy.
- Stadt Salzburg - Official government website.
- Salzburger Nachrichten - the daily newspaper.
- Salzburg 2014 - 2014 Olympic bid website
- SALZBURGnet - Very extensive information page to the city Salzburg, the country Salzburg and the Salzkammergut (Lake District).
- http://www.salzburg-night.at/multilingual.asp?lan=en, restaurant guide and event calendar
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