Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
In 1756 he entered the navy, and was some time with Lord Hood; at the end of the Seven Years' War (1763) he took service with the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1768 he examined portions of the Hudson Bay coasts with a view to improving the cod fishery, and in 1769-1772 he was employed in north-western discovery, searching especially for certain copper mines described by Indians.
His first attempt (from 6 November 1769) failed through the desertion of his Indians; his second (from 23 February 1770) through the breaking of his quadrant; but in his third (December 1770 to June 1772) he was successful, not only discovering the copper of the Coppermine River basin, but tracing this river to the Arctic Ocean. On July 17 1771, Chipewyan chief Matonabbee travelling as his guide on his arctic overland journey, massacred a group of unsuspecting Inuit; this would be known as the Massacre at Bloody Falls .
He reappeared at Fort Prince of Wales on 30 June 1772. Becoming governor of this fort in 1775 he was taken prisoner by the French under La Pérouse in 1782. He returned to England in 1787 where he died in 1792.
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