Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
San Andrés and Providencia
San Andrés and Providencia (Spanish: San Andrés y Providencia) is a department of Colombia. It consists of a number of islands off Nicaragua's Caribbean coast, far removed from mainland Colombia. Its capital is San Andrés.
- Providencia y Santa Catalina
- San Andres
Besides the main islands of San Andrés and Providencia, with their respective small satellite islands, there are eight atolls that belong to the department (from North to South):
Alice Shoal (Banco Alicia)
The bank, a former atoll is about 40 km wide, 32 km long, with an area of 1200 km² (mostly water - lagoon). There are only a few islands: West Breaker, Middle Cay, East Cay and Beacon Cay, mostly with sparse vegetation of bushes and some trees. Most of the reef is drying and hundrets of wrecked ships are located into its vicinity. Beacon Cay is the biggest islet on the reef, completely overbuild with houses and some military facilities, used by the US Mariners during the Cuba Crisis. The station is abandoned today. The Serranilla Bank Lighthouse, inhabited today, stands on a corall ledge in the southwest approach to the bank. The lighthouse is 65 ft high. The atoll was returned by the United States to Colombia in 1982.
Bajo Nuevo is an atoll 26 km long and 9 km wide, with a size of 240 km² (mostly water - lagoon), with some small islets, some covered with grass. The most prominent islet is Low Cay, 300 m long and 40 m wide. Today the cays are frequently visited by lobster fishers. A Lighttower, 20 m high, stands on Low Cay. Low Cay is about 2 m high and barren. The atoll was returned by the United States to Colombia in 1982.
Quita Sueno Bank
The bank has no islands, but in the northeastern part is a 37 km long reef which partly dries at low time. Originally claimed by the United States under the Guano Act of 1856, the atoll was returned by the United States to Colombia in 1982.
The mostly submerged atoll is about 50km long and 13 km wide, with a size of roughly 500 km² (mostly water - lagoon). Several cays and small islets are located on the reef. The most prominent cay is Southwest Cay, about 1200 m by 800 m in area, with several ruines of a former military base, used by the US Mariners during the Cuba Crisis. The islets are all covered with sparse vegetation, bushes and some trees. On Southwest Cay and on Narrow Cay are lighthouses, operating to day and adminstered by Columbia. The Southwest Cay light is a 25 m high tower, constructed by a combination of a concree dwelling and a white iron framework tower with a light on its top. North Cay is permanent inhabited by turtle fishers, and several new wooden huts are standing on the islet. Originally claimed by the United States under the Guano Act of 1856, the atoll was returned by the United States to Colombia in 1982.
The Roncador Bank, a mostly submerged atoll with several sandy cays, is a 14 by 6 km in size, with an area of 65 km² (mostly water - lagoon). In the northern area lies Roncador Cay, about 600 m by 300 m in area, and rising to 4 m elevation. There are several houses on it, partly ruined, build up during the Cuba Crisis, by American troups. An old disused lighthouse is at its northern end. Originally claimed by the United States under the Guano Act of 1856, the atoll was returned by the United States to Colombia in 1982.
Cayos del Este Sudeste (Courtown Cays, Cayos de E.S.E.)
Cayos de Albuquerque (Cayos de S.W., Southwest Cays)
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