Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Santiago (known officially in Spanish as Santiago de Chile) is the capital of and largest city in Chile. It is situated in the country's central valley, and administratively is a part of the Santiago Metropolitan Region. Santiago is home to nearly a third of the country's population, or 4,668,473 according to the 2002 census.
Santiago was founded by Pedro de Valdivia on February 12, 1541 with the name Santiago del Nuevo Extremo. The founding ceremony was held on Huelén Hill (later renamed Santa Lucía Hill). Valdivia chose the location of Santiago because of its moderate climate and the ease with which it could be defended—the Mapocho River split the area in two, and rejoined further downstream, forming an island.
The first buildings were erected with the help of the native Picunche Indians. The south bank of the Mapocho River was later drained and converted into a public promenade, known as the Alameda (now Avenida Alameda Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins). The city was slightly damaged during the War of Independence (1810–18), in the Battle of Maipú, which was fought south-west of the city. Santiago was named capital in 1818.
During the early 19th century, Santiago remained a small town with few buildings excepting Palacio de La Moneda, the building used as the Chilean mint during the Spanish period, and a few churches and other civic buildings. In the 1880s extraction of nitrate fertilizer in Northern Chile brought prosperity to the country, and promoted the capital city's development. Important landmarks were built in 1910 during the Centennial celebrations of independence from Spain, such as the National Library and the Museum of Fine Arts.
Santiago began its transformation to a modern city in the 1930s, with the building of the Barrio Cívico, surrounding El Palacio de La Moneda. The city also grew in population, due to migration from the north and south of Chile.
In 1985 an earthquake destroyed some historically significant buildings in the downtown area.
Santiago is now often considered an important financial center in Latin America.
Santiago has a mild Mediterranean climate: relatively hot dry summers (November to March) with temperatures reaching up to 35 degrees Celsius on the hottest days; winters (June to August) are more humid, with typical maximum daily temperatures of 15 degrees Celsius, and minimums of a few degrees above freezing.
Mean rainfall is 360 mm per year.
Thermal inversion (a meteorogical phenomenon whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the ground) causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and concentrate within the Central Valley during winter months. The government has attempted to reduce pollution by giving incentives for heavy industry to move out of the valley but such measures have seen limited results.
The Mapocho river, which crosses the city from the north-east to the south-west of the Central Valley, is contaminated by industrial and household sewage, dumped unfiltered into the river, and by upstream copper-mining waste (there are a number of copper mines in the Andes east of Santiago). The central government recently passed a law that forces industry and local (comuna ) governments to process all their wastewater by 2006. There are now a number of large wastewater processing and recycling plants under construction.
Sound levels on the main streets are high, mostly because of noisy diesel buses. Diesel trucks and buses are also major contributors to winter smog.
The city of Santiago lies within the larger province of Santiago, which is divided into 32 municipalities (comunas in Spanish). Each municipality has a mayor (alcalde) elected by voters every four years. The members of the municipal council (concejales) are elected in the same election on a separate ballot.
List of municipalities
The city has the largest concentration of higher-education institutions in the country.
- Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC)
- Universidad de Chile (U, UCh)
- Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH)
- Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación (UMCE)
- Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (UTEM)
- Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano
- Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez (UAI)
- Universidad Alberto Hurtado
- Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins
- Universidad Bolivariana
- Universidad Católica Raúl Silva Henríquez
- Universidad Central de Chile
- Universidad de Artes y Ciencias Sociales (ARCIS)
- Universidad de Artes, Ciencias y Comunicación (UNIACC)
- Universidad de Ciencias de la Informática
- Universidad de Las Américas
- Universidad de Los Andes
- Universidad del Desarrollo
- Universidad del Pacífico
- Universidad Diego Portales
- Universidad Europea de Negocios
- Universidad Finis Terrae
- Universidad Gabriela Mistral
- Universidad Iberoamericana de Ciencias y Tecnología
- Universidad Internacional SEK
- Universidad La República
- Universidad Mariano Egaña
- Universidad Mayor
- Universidad Miguel de Cervantes
- Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello
- Universidad Santo Tomás
- Universidad Tecnológica Vicente Pérez Rosales
There are two symphonic orchestras:
- Orquesta Filarmónica de Santiago, which performs in the Teatro Municipal
- Orquesta Sinfónica de Chile, dependent of the Universidad de Chile, performs in its theater.
- Museo Arqueológico de Santiago
- Museo de Santiago Casa Colorada
- Museo Catedral Metropolitana
- Museo Colonial San Francisco
- Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino
- Museo Histórico Nacional
- Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes
- Museo de Arte Contemporáneo
- Museo Interactivo Mirador
- Museo Artequín
- Museo de Ciencia y Tecnología
- Museo Ferroviario
- Museo de la Solidaridad "Salvador Allende"
- Palacio Cousiño
- Santiago has an extensive, if chaotic, privately-run bus system. The buses, known as micros (for microbus), are typically colored yellow. This private system is in the process of being replaced by a new one called Transantiago with larger, newer buses, and an improved payment system, which will be compatible with that already used by the "Metro" subway. The replacement process is expected to be completed by August, 2006.
- The Santiago Metro has three well-run lines but their coverage is still somewhat limited. The Government is in various stages of building one additional Metro line (Line 4) and extensions in Lines 1 and 2. See Metro Santiago.
- Taxicabs can usually be found on the streets and are marked black with yellow roof; alternatively, unmarked taxis may be called up by telephone (Radiotaxis). Colectivos are shared taxicabs which carry passengers along a specific route, for a fixed fee.
- There are train connections from Santiago to the southern part of the country. All depart from and arrive to the Estación Central (Central Station).
- Private inter-urban bus companies provide excellent and cheap transportation from Santiago to virtually any part of the country.
- Santiago's national and international airport is Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport.
Places to visit
- Plaza de Armas, downtown square
- Palacio de La Moneda, presidential palace
- Barrio Bellavista, cultural and bohemian neighborhood
- Santa Lucía Hill
- San Cristóbal Hill
- Ski resorts within an hour's drive east from the city include Farellones, Valle Nevado, and La Parva. Portillo is some three hours away.
- La Chascona , Pablo Neruda's house, now a museum
- Santiago Metropolitan Park (Santiago Zoo), on Cerro San Cristóbal
- O'Higgins Park
- Forestal Park , park located at the city centre alongside Mapocho river
- Central Station , railway station designed by Gustave Eiffel
- National Stadium
- Víctor Jara Stadium
- Ex National Congress
- Municipalidad de Santiago
Some noteworthy restaurants, jazz clubs and nightclubs can be found on the back streets of the Bellavista district north of the Mapocho river.
(in no particular order)
- El Perseguidor - Calle Antonio López de Bello 0126, Bella Vista. Stylish Jazz Restaurant in Bellavista with a creative menu and live music, visit the bathrooms and admire the unusual murals, while trying to decide whether you are a cat or a fish. As of May 2004
- Azul Profundo - Constitución 111, Bella Vista, arguably one of the best seafood restaurants in Bella Vista; gets busy so reservations are recommended. As of May 2004
- Off the record - Cozy bohemian joint across the road from El perseguidor, with pleasant staff and good seafood. As of May 2004
- El otro Sitio - A pair of smart Peruvian restaurants with excellent food, one in Bellavista, and one in Borde Río.
- Confiteria Torres - (Av. Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins 1570) Grand-Cafe styled restaurant/cafe with good food, on the pricey side. As of May 2004
- Donde Augusto is the finest (and largest) seafood restaurant in the picturesque Mercado Central
- Bravissimo and Coppelia compete for the gelatto market with two-scoop cones going for roughly 700 pesos as of December 2003. Arguably one of the most interesting flavors is lúcuma, a local fruit that tastes something like pumpkin.
- Dominó has several locations and is one the brightest and fanciest of the hot dog ("completo") joints around downtown.
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