Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Saskatchewan is a Canadian prairie province. It has an area of 651,900 km² (251,700 mi²) and a population of 978,934 (Saskatchewanians) (January 1, 2005). Most of its population lives in the southern part of the province. The largest city is Saskatoon with a population of 225,927 (January 1, 2005), followed by the province's capital, Regina (population: 192,800, January 1, 2005). Other major cities (in order of size) include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, and North Battleford. See also List of communities in Saskatchewan.
Saskatchewan is (approximately) a quadrilateral bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the American states of Montana and North Dakota.
The province's name, pronounced "sus-KATCH-uh-wun" (IPA: ) by its inhabitants, comes from the Saskatchewan River, whose name comes from its Cree designation: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy (Cree syllabics: ᑭᓯᐢᑳᒋᐘᓂ ᓯᐱᐩ), meaning "swift flowing river".
Saskatchewan's economy is traditionally associated with agriculture, however increasing diversification has meant that now agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting together make up only 6.8% of the province's GDP. Wheat is the most familiar crop, and perhaps the one stereotypically associated with the province, but other grains like canola, flax, rye, oats and barley are also produced. Mining is also a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world leader in potash exports. In the northern part of the province, forestry is significant.
Saskatchewan is also the world's most important supplier of uranium, and supplies much of the western world's supplies. The uranium industry is closely regulated by the provincial government which allows the government of Saskatchewan great latitude in setting world uranium prices.
Saskatchewan's GDP in 2003 was approximately $32 billion (Canadian), with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Leasing - 17.1% Mining and Petroleum - 13.0% Education, Health, and Social Services - 11.9% Wholesale and Retail Trade - 11.7% Transportation, Communication, and Utility - 9.1% Manufacturing - 7.7% Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting - 6.8% Business Services - 6.5% Government Services - 5.8% Construction - 5.0% Other - 5.3%
Bombardier runs the NATO Flight Training Centre in Moose Jaw. Bombardier was awarded a contract for $2.8 billion from the Federal Government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. This contract was made sometime between 2001 and 2002.
Prior to European settlement, Saskatchewan was settled by Athabaskan, Algonquian, and Sioux tribes. The first European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the province's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House founded by Samuel Hearne in 1774.
In the 1870s settlement of the province started to take off as the Canadian Pacific Railway was built, and the Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey and gave free land to any willing settlers. The North West Mounted Police set up several forts across Saskatchewan.
The indigenous peoples were forced onto their own reservations, and the Métis people who had settled there, led by Louis Riel, attempted the North-West Rebellion to form their own government independent from Canada. Riel surrendered after two months and was convicted of treason.
As more settlers came to Saskatchewan on the railway, its population grew and it became a full province in 1905.
For many years Saskatchewan has been one of the more left leaning provinces. In 1944 they elected Tommy Douglas Premier of the first socialist government in North America. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government Saskatchewan became the first province to have socialized health care. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party .
During the post-war period the CCF and its successor the Saskatchewan New Democrats have dominated provincial politics with Douglas, Allan Blakeney and Roy Romanow all serving long periods as Premier and becoming national figures .
The Saskatchewan Liberal Party was the province's main centrist party for several decades but became insignificant following the defeat of Ross Thatcher's government in 1971. The Progressive Conservatives displaced the Liberals but imploded and officially withdrew from politics following the defeat of the scandal ridden government of Grant Devine.
Today, the official opposition in the province is the Saskatchewan Party, a new right-wing party built out of the remains of the Tories and right wing former Liberals. The current premier of Saskatchewan is New Democrat Lorne Calvert, whose government was re-elected in the 2003 election with a slim majority government--the NDP won 30 seats in the 58-seat Legislative Assembly, while the Saskatchewan Party won the remaining 28 seats.
Regina Police Service
Saskatoon Police Service
Prince Albert Police Service
RM of Corman Park Police Service
Regina Correctional Centre
Prince Albert Correctional Centre
Pine Grove Correctional Centre
Regional Psychiatric Centre
- The Saskatchewan Act
- List of cities in Canada
- List of Saskatchewan general elections
- List of Saskatchewan lieutenant-governors
- List of Saskatchewan premiers
- List of Leaders of the Opposition in Saskatchewan
- List of communities in Saskatchewan
- List of Canadian provincial and territorial symbols
- List of Saskatchewan rivers
- Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan
- List of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan
- Saskatchewan Film and Video Classification Board
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