Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
September 11, 2001 attack memorials and services
The first memorials to the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks began to take shape online, as hundreds of webmasters posted their own thoughts, links to the Red Cross and other rescue agencies, photos and eyewitness accounts. Numerous online Sept. 11 memorials began appearing a few hours after the attacks, although many of these memorials were only temporary. (For an assessment of the response of webloggers to the attacks, see When blogging came of age .)
The Tribute in Light was the first major physical memorial at the World Trade Center site. A permanent memorial at the World Trade Center site is planned, as part of the design by Studio Daniel Libeskind. The plans call for preservation of much of the towers' foundational "bathtub", with glass towers wending around to a 1776-foot high spire.
One of the places that had many memorials and candlelight vigiles was Pier A in Hoboken, New Jersey, where many people saw the events of Sept. 11 (Pier A had a good view of the World Trade Center.) There was also a memorial service on March 11, 2002 at dusk on Pier A when the Tribute in Light first turned on, marking the half-year anniversery of the terrorist attack. A permanent September 11 memorial for Hoboken, called Hoboken Island, was chosen in September of 2004.
The first anniversary of the attack brought numerous memorials and services.
Vigils and services
In New York City, candlelight vigils were held across the city on Wednesday night (September 12) and Friday night (September 14) at 7:00 PM. (A related email hoax spread, encouraging people to "go outside at 7pm so NASA can take a photo". See Misinformation and rumors.)
Several thousand citizens march in a candlelight procession through the Adams Morgan district, through Dupont Circle, past dozens of embassies and onto the National Mall, where they join additional thousands of their fellow citizens holding vigil over The Pentagon, just across the Potomac River.
In the UK, in a break with the long-standing usual procedures at Buckingham Palace, the Queen ordered the Changing of the Guard to be paused for a two minute silence on September 13th, followed by the playing of the American national anthem (On June 4, 2002, to mark the Golden Jubilee celebrations for the Queen, New York City lit the Empire State Building in purple and gold, thanking the queen for having the American national anthem played). A memorial service was held in St. Paul's cathedral, London, attended by the Queen and politicians on the 14th September. A three minute silence at noon Paris time was held throughout Europe on the 14th. Rev. Billy Graham led a service at Washington National Cathedral, with President George W. Bush, past and present leaders, and other politicians in attendance. Bush spoke, beginning with the memorable phrase, "We are here in the middle hour of our grief." The service was not televised worldwide, because people in Canada saw a similar memorial service on Parliament Hill, which Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson, and U.S. Ambassador Paul Cellucci presided over and over 100,000 people attended. In his speech, Chrétien told Cellucci that both the United States and Canada are not only neighbors, but family. The service on Parliament Hill, which Chrétien and Cellucci would later say in the months ahead, was a chance to show solidarity with the American neighbors, also included 3 minutes of silence across Canada at 12:20 p.m., ET. When Bush made his visit to Canada in 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin said that the service on Parliament Hill was the largest single vigil ever seen in the nation's capital.
Vigils and memorial services continued to be held in the following days. On Sunday the families of the victims of the crash of United Airlines flight 93 gathered at the crash site in Pennsylvania for a private ceremony, then joined in a service attended by governor Tom Ridge and First Lady Laura Bush.
Church services are held across the United States and much of the world. Here is [one service held September 16].
At 11 AM: Blessing of the Animals
- Special service dedicated to the World Trade Center search and rescue teams at the Church of the Resurrection, 119 E. 74th St., free (212.879.4320). Service begins at 11; blessing is at 12:30 PM.
A memorial is constructed and then set ablaze at the Playa del Fuego event on the October 19-21 weekend 
On May 28, the last steel beam standing at the site was cut down and placed on a flatbed truck in a quiet ceremony.
Impromptu memorials are put up at Washington Square, with hundreds of candles and flowers, and Union Square, where people write messages on large rolls of paper taped to the ground amidst candles, including a 6-foot high concrete candle. A mural is spray-painted on a wall in the Lower East Side. In the coming days the memorials continue to grow, especially at Union Square Park, where thousands come to congregate, grieve, and celebrate--the statue George Washington in Union Square overtaken as a shrine for peace, memory and the United States, thousands of candles are added, a metal sculpture of the American flag and 2500 roses planted in the shape of the World Trade Center towers.
The Stars and Stripes appear on front stoops, flagpoles, cars, clothing, and on public buildings across the country.
A statue in honor of fallen firefighters, commissioned in 2000 by the Firefighters Association of Missouri , was in New York City en route to Missouri at the time of the attack. It was since donated to New York City in honor of the hundreds of firefighters who lost their lives in the collapse of the World Trade Center.
On October 4, Reverend Brian Jordan, a Franciscan priest, blessed two beams at the crash site which had formed a cross spontaneously, and then had been welded together by ironworkers.
On March 11, the damaged Sphere sculpture formerly in the World Trade Center was dedicated by the city as a temporary memorial in Battery Park City.
Beginning March 11, the Tribute in Light project, 88 searchlights placed next to the site of the World Trade Center created two vertical columns of light, lasting until April 14. This tribute is now done every year on September 11.
On September 11, 2002, representatives from over 90 countries came to Battery Park City as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg lit an eternal flame to mark the first anniversary of the attacks. Leading the dignitaries were Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, Bloomberg, and Secretary of State Colin Powell.
On September 11, 2004 at 9:15am, Russian artist Zurab Tsereteli will dedicate his sculpture, "Tear of Grief", a 10-story high tribute to be erected on the Jersey City waterfront across the Hudson River from where the World Trade Center towers fell. The sculpture is an official gift of the Russian government to commemorate the victims of the attacks. That evening, the Empire State Building went dark for 11 minutes at 9:11 p.m. in remembrance.
Performances and benefits
On Thursday, September 20, the New York Philharmonic performed a memorial concert of the Brahms Ein Deutsches Requiem in Avery Fisher Hall. The concert was led off by the national anthem, and on the stage was a flag which appeared on stage during all Philharmonic World War II concerts. All proceeds went to disaster relief. At the request of the Philharmonic director, all applause was held, and the audience filed out in silence.
On Friday, September 21, America: A Tribute to Heroes
- A two-hour live telethon entitled "", with musical performances and spoken tributes by top American performers, was simultaneously broadcast on nearly every single network. Celebrities such as Al Pacino, George Clooney and Jack Nicholson manned the phones.
On Tuesday, October 2, beginning at 8 PM EDT: Come Together: A Night of John Lennon's Words and Music
- A tribute to John Lennon that became a concert of prayer and healing for New York City to benefit the relief efforts, hosted by Kevin Spacey and featuring Dave Matthews, Moby, Stone Temple Pilots, Nelly Furtado, Shelby Lynne, Alanis Morissette, Cyndi Lauper, The Isley Brothers, Lou Reed, Marc Anthony, Natalie Merchant, Yolanda Adams, Sean Lennon and Yoko Ono, was held at Radio City Music Hall and simultaneously broadcast live on the TNT and WB networks. It had been scheduled before the attack to be taped September 20 and broadcast on October 9 to promote a non-violent world.
On Thursday, October 4, at 9 PM EDT: ART Benefit for Sept. 11 Fund
- Silent auction of photography, mixed media, painting and sculpture to benefit the victims, at View Bar, 232 8th Ave., free (212.929.2243).
On Saturday, October 6, at 6 PM EDT: And the Sun Went Down
- Luvchild Theatre Ensemble performs a work in progress based on stories of people directly affected by the events of Sept. 11. All proceeds benefit victims and families, at New York Comedy Club, 241 E. 24th St., $10 plus two drink minimum (212.330.9314).
On Sunday, October 7: AMF National Bowl-a-thon
- National effort to raise $3 million for the Twin Towers Fund . In New York City at 3 PM: Chelsea Piers, $200 per lane. 
On Monday, October 8: New York City Columbus Day Parade
- The annual Columbus Day parade is dedicated to victims and rescue and relief workers. The NYPD and FDNY do not march in the parade as they usually do, but send a single fire truck instead, in somber memory.
At 3 p.m. EDT:
- Free Brooklyn Philharmonic concert conducted by Robert Spano at the Brooklyn Academy of Music with music from American composers, including George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, and Aaron Copland. The concert is rebroadcast on WNYC at 8 p.m.
- Roberto Novo and his stylists cut hair to benefit WTC victims at the Roberto Novo Salon, 192 8th Ave., $25 minimum (212.929.1652).
On Tuesday, October 9: Benefit for WTC Disaster Fund: Celebration of John Lennon's Birthday
- The East Village Antifolk scene play John Lennon's and their own songs to raise money. Performances from The Voyces , Joie DBG , Amos , Bionic Finger , Laura Fay , Barry Bliss , Tony Hightower , Linda Draper , Pat Cisarano , Lach, Testosterone Kills , Kenny Davidsen , Jude Kastle , Bree Sharp , Erica Smith , Fenton Lawless , Grey Revell , at the Sidewalk Cafe, 94 Ave. A, two-drink minimum (212-473-7373).
On October 17, Marvel Comics and other members of the comic industry release a tribute book, primarily with drawings of firefighters and police officers, with proceeds going to the victims. Other charity books are also in production.
Several reporters for The New York Times, including Metro reporter Wendell Jameson , are writing 150-word entries for each of the World Trade Center victims, which highlight brief anecdotes about their lives. They expect the effort to take about 10 months.
In Memoriam to add a memorial to an individual victim
Personal Experiences to add a general memorial or tribute by describing your experience
- America Survives
- Attack on America: The Victims' Voice
- From 88 Searchlights, an Ethereal Tribute, The New York Times, March 4, 2002
- THE VICTIMS: A Homegrown Memorial Brings Strangers Together
- Statue to Fallen Firefighters to Make Its Home in New York, New York Times, 9/19/2001
- THE PENNSYLVANIA CRASH: 44 Victims Are Remembered, and Lauded, New York Times, 9/18/2001
- NY Times--THE VIGILS: Surrounded by Grief, People Around the World Pause and Turn to Prayer Information to be incorporated
- Pilgrims Flock to Crash Site, The New York Times, September 9, 2002
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