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Records of the Grand Historian
The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sīmǎ Qiān, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. Records of the Grand Historian is a modern Western name; The original title in Chinese is Shǐjì (史記), which simply means "Historical Records". As the first systematic Chinese historical text, it tremendously influenced Chinese historiography and prose, and is comparable to Herodotus and his Historiai.
The 130-chapter text classifies all information into several categories:
- 12 chapters of Běnjì (本紀) contain all biographies of the prominent rulers from the mythical Yellow Emperor including Qin Shi Huang and the kings of Xia dynasty, Shang dynasty, and Zhou Dynasty. The biograhies of four emperors and one empress dowager of the Han Dynasty before his age are also included.
- 30 chapters of Shìjiā (世家) contain all biograghies of notable rulers, nobility and bureaucrats mostly from the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States.
- 70 chapters of Lièzhuàn (列傳) contain all biographies of important figures including Lao zi, Mozi, Sun Tzu, and Jīng Kē.
- 8 chapters of Shū (書) are the economic and cultural records of the time covered in the book.
- 10 chapters of Biǎo (表) are timelines of events.
Unlike subsequent official historical texts that adopted Confucian doctrine, proclaimed the divine rights of the emperors, and degraded any failed claimant of the throne, Sīmǎ Qiān's more liberal and objective prose had been renowned and followed by poets and novelists. Most chapters of Lièzhuàn were vivid descriptions of events and persons, a reason for which is that the author critically used stories passed on from antiquity as part of the sources, balancing reliability and accuracy of the records. For instance, the material on Jīng Kē's attempt at assassinating Qin Shi Huang was an eye-witness story passed on by the great-grandfather of his father's friend, who served as a low-ranked bureaucrat at Qin court and happened to be attending the diplomatic ceremony for Jīng Kē.
- Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Records of the grand historian of China. Translated from the Shih chi of Ssu-ma Ch'ien by Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, ISBN 0231081650
- Various titles by Burton Watson.
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